Shab-e-barat : Specifying the day of the 15th of Sha’baan by fasting or reciting the Qur’aan or performing naafilah prayers

Question:

We see some people specifying the 15th of Sha’baan with particular supplications and reciting the Qur.aan and performing naafilah prayers. So what is the correct position concerning this, and may Allaah reward you with good?

Response:

That which is correct is that fasting the 15th of Sha’baan or specifying it with reciting (the Qur.aan) or making (particular) supplications has no basis. So the day of the 15th of Sha’baan is like any other 15th day of other months. So from that which is known is that it has been legislated for a person to fast the 13th, 14th and 15th of every month, however, Sha’baan is characterised unlike the other months in that (except for Ramadhaan) the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) used to fast more in Sha’baan than any other month . So he used to either fast all of Sha’baan or just a little. Therefore, as long as it does not cause difficulty for a person, it is befitting to increase in fasting during Sha’baan in adherence to the example of the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam).

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen
al-Bid’u wal-Muhdathaat wa maa laa Asla lahu – Page 612
Fataawa Shaykh Muhammad Ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen – Volume 1, Page 190

Standing the night of the 15th of Sha’baan in prayer and fasting during it’s day

Question: Is standing the night of the 15th of Sha’baan in prayer and fasting during it’s day legislated?

Response: Nothing firm and reliable has been established on the authority of the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) that he stood in prayer in the night and fasted during the day of the 15th of Sha’baan. So the night of the 15th of Sha’baan is like any other night, and if someone is a regular worshipper during other nights, then he may stand the night in prayer on this night without assuming anything special (because of it being the night of the 15th of Sha’baan). This is because specifying a time for any act of worship requires a authentic proof, so if there is no authentic proof then the act is regarded as an innovation and all innovations are misguidance. Likewsie, regarding specifically fasting during the 15th day of Sha’baan, then no (authentic) proof has been established on the authority of the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) to indicate the legislation of fasting on that particular day.

As for that which is mentioned from the ahaadeeth regarding this subject, then all of it is weak as the people of knowledge have indicated. However, whoever has the habit of fasting the 13th, 14th and 15th (of every month), then he can continue and fast during Sha’baan as he fasts during the other months, without assuming anything special about the 15th of Sha’baan. Also, the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) used to increase in fasting during this month (Sha’baan), however, he did not particularise the 15th day, rather proceeded as per norm.

Shaykh Ibn Fowzaan
al-Bid’u wal-Muhdathaat wa maa laa asla lahu – Page 614
Noorun alad-Darb Fataawa Shaykh Saalih Ibn Fowzaan – Volume 1, Page 87

Giving sadaqah specifically on the night of 15th of Sha’baan

Question:

When my father was alive, he entrusted me to give sadaqah (charity) according to my means on the 15th of Sha’baan every year, and likewise I have been doing this ever since. However, some people have admonished me for doing so saying it is not permissible. So is giving sadaqah on the night of the 15th of Sha’baan permissible according to the willment of my father or not? Kindly advise us and may Allaah reward you with good.

Response:

To specify the giving of sadaqah on the night of the 15th of Sha’baan every year is an innovation, and despite your father having entrusted you with that, it is not permissible. It is befitting you give this sadaqah without specifying the night of the 15th of Sha’baan, rather do so every year and in whichever month, but without particularising any one month (on a consistent basis). However, it is permissible to do so in the month of Ramadhaan (for the evidence which indicates so).

And with Allaah lies all success and may Allaah send prayers and salutations upon our Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) and his family and his companions.

The Permanent Committee for Islaamic Research and Fataawa

al-Bid’u wal-Muhdathaat wa maa laa Asla lahu – Page 611
Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa.imah lil-Buhooth al-‘Ilmiyyah wal-Iftaa. – Fatwa No. 9760

Ruling on Celebrating the Mid-Sha’ban Night – Detailed fatwa from Sheikh Ibn Baz

Ruling on Celebrating the Mid-Sha’ban Night
Fatwas of Ibn Baz, Volume 1, Warning against Bid’ahs,
Third Treatise: Ruling on celebrating the night before the fifteenth of Sha’ban,
Page No. 186 – 192, alifta.net

Praise be to Allah Who has perfected the religion for us and has completed the favor upon us! Peace and blessings of Allah be upon His Prophet and Messenger Muhammad, the Prophet of repentance and mercy!

To proceed: Allah (Exalted be He) says:

“This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion” [al-Maa’idah 5:3]

He (Exalted be He) also says:

“Or have they partners (with Allah — false gods) who have instituted for them a religion which Allah has not ordained?” [al-Shooraa 42:21]

Moreover, it is reported in the two the Sahih (authentic) Books of Hadith (i.e. Al-Bukhari and Muslim) from ‘Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) that he said:

“Anyone who introduces anything into this matter of ours (Islam) that is not part of it will have it rejected”.

Furthermore, it is reported in the Sahih of Muslim from Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to address people in the Friday Sermon by saying:

“To proceed, the best of speech is the Book of Allah, the best of guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), the most evil of matters are those which are newly-introduced in religion, and every Bid’ah (innovation in religion) is Dalalah (a deviation from what is right).”

There are many other Qur’anic verses and Hadiths to the same effect.

All these verses and Hadiths clearly indicate that Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) has perfected for this Ummah (nation based on one creed) its religion and has completed upon it His Favor and did not cause His Prophet (peace be upon him) to die until he had conveyed the clear message, explained to the Ummah all what Allah has legislated for it of sayings and actions and he (peace be upon him) had pointed out that all what the people innovate after him and relate to the religion of Islam of sayings and actions are Bid’ah (innovation in religion) rejected to those who innovate it, even if done with good intention. The Companions of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and the scholars of Islam after them had realized this matter, and thus, they denied such innovations in religion and warned against them as mentioned by all the scholars who wrote about the great status of the Sunnah (supererogatory act of worship following the example of the Prophet) and the denial of Bid’ah, such as Ibn Waddah, At-Tartushy, Abu Shamah and others.

From the Bid’ah which have been introduced into the religion by people is the Bid’ah of celebrating the Mid-Sha’ban night and fasting on its day, and there is no reliable evidence for such actions. There are weak Hadiths reported with regard to the virtue of the Mid-Sha’ban night, but it is not allowed to rely on them as evidence. As for what is reported regarding the virtue of praying during the Mid-Sha’ban night, they are all fabricated Hadiths as confirmed by many Muslim scholars, and we will, Insha’a-Allah (if Allah wills), mention some of their comments on that.

Besides, there are some other narrations regarding the virtue of this night reported from the righteous predecessors of the people of Al-Sham (the Levant) and others. What the majority of Muslim scholars agreed upon is that the celebration of this Mid-Sha’ban night is Bid’ah and that the Hadiths reported regarding the virtue of this night are all weak Hadiths and some of them are fabricated Hadiths. From those who drew the attention to the weakness and fabrication of these Hadiths is Al-Hafiz ibn Rajab in his book entitled: (Lata’if Al-Ma’arif) and people other than him. It is to be noted that the weak Hadiths can be applied only in the types of worship, the origin of which have been established by sound and authentic evidence. As for celebrating the Mid-Sha’ban night, there is no sound and authentic evidence supporting it to justify reliance on the weak Hadiths in this regard.

This great rule has been mentioned by Imam: Abul-’Abbas Shaykhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (may Allah have mercy upon him). Dear reader, I will convey for you some of what the people of knowledge say about this issue in order to be on clear evidence regarding it. Moreover, the majority of Muslim scholars (may Allah have mercy upon all of them) said that it is an obligation to refer the issues what the people differ over to the Book of Allah (Exalted be He) and to the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), and thus, what both these sources or either of them approve, then it is the legislation which should be followed and what contradicts them should be set aside and what is not mentioned in these two sources of worships, then it is Bid’ah which is not allowed to be practiced, let alone inviting people to it and encouraging it.

Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) says:

“O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم), and those of you (Muslims) who are in authority. (And) if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم), if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day. That is better and more suitable for final determination.” [al-Nisaa’ 4:59]

He (Glorified be He) also says:

“And in whatsoever you differ, the decision thereof is with Allah (He is the ruling Judge).” [al-Shooraa 42:10]

Moreover, Allah (Exalted be He) also says:

“Say (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم to mankind): “If you (really) love Allah then follow me (i.e. accept Islamic Monotheism, follow the Qur’an and the Sunnah), Allah will love you and forgive you your sins.” [Aal ‘Imraan 3:31]

He (Glorified and Exalted be He) also says:

“But no, by your Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.” [al-Nisaa’ 4:65]

In addition to that, there are many verses supporting this principle and they are clear evidence of the obligation to refer the debatable issues to the Book of Allah and to the Sunnah of His Messenger (peace be upon him) and the obligation to be pleased and satisfied with their rulings, and to know that this is the natural outcome of faith, the best for the slaves during this lifetime and in the Hereafter and the best in result: namely, the end result.

Al-Hafiz ibn Rajab (may Allah have mercy upon him) in his book entitled: “Lata’if Al-Ma’arif” with regard to this issue – after previous similar talk – said in wording:

“Regarding the Mid-Sha’ban night, the followers from the people of Al-Sham; such as Khalid ibn Ma’dan, Makhul, Luqman ibn ‘Amir and others used to exalt it and exert their efforts therein to perform more worships and people followed them with regard to its virtue and exaltation. It is said that some Israelite narrations and traditions have reached them regarding the virtue of this night, and when this became widespread in countries, people differed regarding it, and therefore, some of them accepted it and agreed with them with regard to the magnification of this night such as a group from the worshippers of the people of Basra and others. On the other hand, this act was denied by the majority of Muslim scholars of Al-Hijaz such as: ‘Ata and Ibn Abu Mulaikah, and it was transmitted by ‘Abdul-Rahman ibn Zayd ibn Aslam from the jurists of the people of Madinah, and it is the opinion of the disciples of Imam Malik and others. They said that all these acts are mere Bid’ah. However, the scholars of the people of Al-Sham differed regarding the way of celebrating it into two opinions:

First: It is recommended to celebrate it collectively in the Masajid (Mosques). It is reported that Khalid ibn Ma’dan and Luqman ibn ‘Amir and others used to put on their best clothes, apply incense and kohl (antimony powder eyeliner) and spend the entire night in the Masjid. Their act was approved by Ishaq ibn Rahawyah who said about celebrating it in congregation in the Masjid, that it is not Bid’ah. This is reported by Harb Al-Kirmany in his book titled: “Al-Masa’il” (Religious Issues).

Second: It is reprehensible to gather during that night in the Masjid for prayer, narrating stories and supplication, but is not reprehensible for one to pray individually during that night for himself. This is the opinion of Al-Awza’iy, who was the Imam of the people of Al-Sham, their jurist and their scholar, and this, Insha’a-Allah (if Allah wills), is the closest opinion to the truth, until he said: It is not known if Imam Ahmad said something about the Mid-Sha’ban night. There are two narrations reported from Al-Awza’iy regarding the recommendation to stay up late for prayer during the Mid-Sha’ban night relying on the two narrations reported from Imam Ahmad regarding staying up late for Prayer during the two nights of ‘Eid. In one narration, he did not recommend staying up late in congregational prayer during the two nights of ‘Eid because it was not reported from the Prophet (peace be upon him) or from his Companions that they did that. In another narration he recommended staying up late for Prayer during those nights following the act of ‘Abdul-Rahman ibn Yazid ibn Al-Aswad who was one of the Tabi’un (Followers, the generation after the Companions of the Prophet), in that. By the same token, there is no sound and authentic narration reported from the Prophet (peace be upon him) nor from his Companions regarding staying up late for Prayer during the Mid-Sha’ban night. However, it is reported from a group of the Followers from among the noble jurists of the people of Al-Sham”

This is the end of the statement of Al-Hafiz ibn Rajab (may Allah have mercy upon him), which clearly states that no sound and authentic narration was reported from the Prophet (peace be upon him) nor from his Companions (may Allah be pleased with all of them) regarding the Mid-Sha’ban night.

As for the opinion chosen by Al-Awza’iy (may Allah have mercy upon him) regarding the recommendation of staying up late individually for Prayer during the Mid-Sha’ban night and Al-Hafiz ibn Rajab’s preference of this opinion, it is strange and weak, because if something has not been established by the legal evidence that it is legislation, then it is not allowed for a Muslim to introduce it into the religion of Allah, whether one does it individually or in congregation, and whether one practices it secretly or openly, due to the comprehensiveness of the Prophet’s (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) saying: Anyone who does an action which is not in accordance with this matter of ours (Islam) will have it rejected. and other evidence indicating the rejection of innovations in religion and warning against them.

It is also reported from Imam Abu Bakr Al-Tartushy (may Allah have mercy upon him) in his book entitled: (Al-Hawadith Wal-Bida’) that he said in wording:

“It is reported by Ibn Waddah from Zayd ibn Aslam that he said: ‘We have not found anyone from our Shaykhs or our jurists paying attention to the Mid-Sha’ban night. Moreover, they did not pay attention to that Hadith reported by Mak-hul and they did not consider any special virtue for this night to the exclusion of other nights.’ Moreover, it was said to Ibn Abi Mulaikah : Indeed, Ziyad An-Numairiy says: ‘Verily, the reward of the Mid-Sha’ban night is like the reward of Laylat-ul-Qadr (the Night of Decree)’, then he said: ‘If I hear him saying that and I have a staff in my hand, I will hit him’. It is noteworthy that Ziyad was a narrator of stories.” End of the statement of Abu Bakr Al-Tartushy.

Furthermore, the erudite scholar: Al-Shawkany (may Allah bestow His mercy upon him), in his book entitled: (Al-Fawa’id Al-Majmu’ah), said in wording:

“The Hadith: O ‘Ali, whoever prays a hundred Rak’ah (a unit of the prayer) during the Mid-Sha’ban night and reads in every Rak’ah (unit of Prayer) Al-Fatihah (the Opening Chapter of the Book) and Surah Ikhlas ten times, Allah will fulfil all their needs etc., is a fabricated Hadith, and within the words of the Hadith talking about the great reward for the one who performs this Prayer there is something which does not leave any doubt for a sound-minded person to know that it is a fabricated Hadith. Moreover, its narrators are unknown and it has been reported through a second and third narrations, all of which are inserted fabrications and their narrators are unknown. It is also said in “Al-Mukhtasar” (The Concise Book of Hadith) that the Hadith of performing Prayer during the Mid-Sha’ban night is null. and what is reported by Ibn Hibban from the Hadith of ‘Ali : When the Middle Night of Sha’ban comes, observe night vigil prayer during it and fast the following day is a weak Hadith. It is said in (Al-La’ali’, “Perals”) that Praying one hundred Rak’ahs with sincerity during the Mid-Sha’ban night ten times. along with the rest of the details about its virtue, which is reported by Ad-Daylamiy and others, and this is a false Hadith, and all its narrators in the three different narrations are unknown and thier narrators are weak. He said that the Hadith: And twelve Rak’ahs in which Surah Al-Ikhlas is recited thirty times. is a fabricated Hadith, and the Hadith: and fourteen Rak’as. is also a false Hadith.

It is noted that a group of jurists had been deceived by this Hadith, such as the author of the book entitled: (Al-’Ihya’) and others, as well as some Exegetes of the Qur’an. Performing prayer on this night – namely, the Mid-Sha’ban night- has been reported in different ways, all of which are null and fabricated narrations. This does not contradict the narration reported by Al-Tirmidhiy from the Hadith of ‘Aishah regarding his (peace be upon him) going to Al-Baqi’ and the descending of the Lord to the nearest sky during the Mid-Sha’ban night and that He forgives for more than the number of the hairs of the sheep of Banu Kalb, since we are talking about this prayer which has been falsely established in that night. Moreover, the Hadith reported by ‘Aishah has weakness and its chain of transmission is interrupted and the Hadith reported by ‘Ali which has been previously mentioned with regard to staying up late during that night for Prayer does not contradict the ruling that a special Prayer during that night is falsely established, in addition to the weakness in that Hadith according to the what we have mentioned.” End of Al-Shawkany’s comment.

It is reported from Al-Hafiz Al-’Iraqy that he said:

“The Hadith of performing prayer during the Mid-Sha’ban night is falsely related to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and is lying about him. Moreover, it is reported by Al-Imam Al-Nawawy that he said in the book entitled: (Al-Majmu’): ‘The Prayer known as Salat-ul-Ragha’ib (Prayer for great bounties or wishes), which is twelve Rak’ahs performed between the Maghrib (Sunset) Prayer and ‘Isha’ (Night) Prayer during the night of the first Friday of the Month of Rajab and the Prayer during the Mid-Sha’ban night, which is a hundred Rak’ahs, are two evil Bid’ahs (innovations in religion) and no one should be deceived by their mentioning in the book entitled: (Qout A-Qulub), the book entitled: (Ihya’ ‘Ulum Ad-Din) nor by the Hadith reported regarding these two nights, since all this is void and no one should be deceived by some of the Imams who got confused about their ruling and wrote some papers regarding the recommended practices during these two nights, because they made a mistake in that”.

On the other hand, Shaykh Imam Abu Muhammad ‘Abdul-Rahman ibn Isma’il Al-Maqdisy wrote a very valuable book regarding the falsification of the special virtues of these two nights and he did a good job in this book. Moreover, people of knowledge talked very much about this issue, and if we trace all what has been said regarding this subject and try to convey it, then we will have a very long explanation, but we hope that what we have mentioned regarding this issue will be sufficient and convincing for the seeker of truth.

From what has been previously mentioned of verses, Hadith and the opinions of Muslim scholars, it becomes clear to the seeker of the truth that celebrating the Mid-Sha’ban night through performing Prayer and other activities and singling out the following day with Fast is an evil Bid’ah according to the opinion of the majority of Muslim scholars. It has no foundation in the purified Islamic Shar’ (law), but it has been newly introduced into Islam after the epoch of the Companions (may Allah be pleased with all of them). It is sufficient for the seeker of truth, about this subject and other subjects, to read Allah’s (may He be Exalted and Sublime) Saying: “This day, I have perfected your religion for you” and to read other Qur’anic verses confirming this meaning, as well as the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) saying: “Anyone who introduces anything into this matter of ours (Islam) that is not part of it will have it rejected”, in addition to what has been reported of the Hadiths confirming this meaning.

Moreover, it is reported in the Sahih of Muslim from Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) who said that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

“Do not single out the night (preceding) Friday among the nights for prayer and do not single out Friday among days for fasting but only when anyone among you is accustomed to fast (on dates) which coincide with this day (Friday).”

If it is allowed to single out a certain night with a special worship, then the night of Friday will be more deserving of this special worship, because its day is the best day on which the sun rises according to the sound and authentic Hadith reported from the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Since the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) warned against singling out this night with special Prayer to the exclusion of other nights, then it is evidence that other nights should not be singled out with a certain type of worship unless there is a sound and authentic evidence indicating such specification.

Since it is ordained to stay up late for Prayer during Laylat-ul-Qadr (the Night of Decree) and during other nights of Ramadan, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) drew the attention to that, encouraged the Ummah to do that and did it himself as reported in the two Two Sahih (authentic) Books of Hadith (i.e. Al-Bukhari and Muslim) from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) that he said:

“Whoever observes Optional Night Prayer during the month of Ramadan out of sincere Faith and hoping for a reward from Allah, then all his past sins will be forgiven, and whoever stands for prayers in the night of Qadr out of sincere Faith and hoping for a reward from Allah, then all his previous sins will be forgiven.”

Thus, if the Mid-Sha’ban night, the night of the first Friday of Rajab or the night of Isra’ (Night Journey) and Mi’raj (Ascension to Heaven) were singled out with a certain type of worship, then the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) would guide the Ummah to it or would do it himself and if something like this had happened, the Companions (may Allah be pleased with all of them) would have transmitted it to the Ummah and would not conceal it from the following generations since they were the best people and the best in giving advice after the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon all of them) and may Allah be pleased with the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and may they be pleased by Allah. You have already known from the opinions of Muslim scholars that nothing has been established from the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) nor from his Companions (may Allah be pleased with all of them) regarding the virtue of the night of the first Friday of Rajab or of the Mid-Sha’ban night, and therefore, it becomes clear that celebrating both of them is a Bid’ah, newly introduced in the religion. By the same token, singling them out with a special worship is an evil Bid’ah. The same ruling applies to the twenty-seventh night of Rajab, which some people believe is the night of Al-Isra’ and Mi’raj, that it should not be singled out with a certain worship and it is not allowed to celebrate it due to the above-mentioned evidence. This is the ruling if we know when Al-Isra’ and Mi’raj happened, how will it be if this night is unknown, according to the true view of Muslim scholars, and the saying of those who claim that it is the twenty-seventh night of Rajab is a false opinion having no basis within the sound and authentic Hadith. Indeed, he is good in speech the one who says:

The best affairs are those previously established on true guidance
and the worst of them are the newly introduced innovations in religion

He is Allah Whom we ask to guide us and all Muslims to abide by the Sunnah, to be steadfast on it and to be cautious of what contradicts it. Indeed, He is Bounteous and Generous! May Allah send His Peace and Prayers upon His Servant and Messenger, our Prophet Muhammad, his family and all his Companions!

Fatwas of Ibn Baz, Volume 1, Warning against Bid’ahs,
Third Treatise: Ruling on celebrating the night before the fifteenth of Sha’ban, Page No. 186 – 192

Taken from :http://www.alifta.net/Fatawa/FatawaChapters.aspx?View=Page&PageID=39&PageNo=1&BookID=14

Hadith 10 : Restricting Oneself To The Pleasant Halaal

On the authority of Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) who said: The Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: Allaah the Almighty is Good and accepts only that which is good. And verily Allaah has commanded the Believers to do that which He has commanded the Messengers. So the Almighty has said:“O (you) Messengers! Eat of the Tayyibaat [all kinds of Halaal (legal) foods], and perform righteous deeds.” [23:51] and the Almighty has said:“O you who believe! Eat of the lawful things that We have provided you” [2:172]. Then he mentioned [the case] of a man who, having journeyed far, is dishevelled and dusty, and who spreads out his hands to the sky saying “O Lord! O Lord!”, while his food is Haraam (unlawful), his drink is Haraam, his clothing is Haraam, and he has been nourished with Haraam, so how can [his supplication] be answered ?! [Narrated by Muslim.]

“Not equal are Al Khabeeth (all that is evil and bad as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc.) and At-Tayyib (all that is good as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc.), even though the abundance of Al-Khabeeth (evil) may please you.” (Surah Al-Ma`idah 5:100)

My Notes:

This hadith has lots of benefits. The meaning of Allah being tayyib means Allah is Exalted from deficiency or bad, like His name Al-Quddos or As-Salaam. He is Exalted from deficiencies in His Names, Attributes, Essence, Actions. Allah’s Essence, Names Attributes, Actions, and what He legislated for the Ummah are all good. Alah allows the good and makes prohibited what is evil or not good. His Deen His Rules are all good. He is Pure and He does not accept what is not pure.

What is tayyib according to the actions? They have to have ikhlas or sincerity and must be done according to the sunnah and it is done by a Muslim. The 3i’s Islam, Itibaa’, Ikhlas. Allah does not accept the actions of a non-muslim even if he pays a mountain (Uhud) of Gold. This thing that is good that Allah accept has to have the three conditions stated above. Allah accepts the money that is given in charity should be from halaal means. Like it is not permissible to give either alcohol or the flesh of pig to a hungry poor person. That is
haraam and impermissible. If someone invests his money in a bank and earns interest on it and says that he will use the money to spend on the poor, this is also not accepted. When we give chrity it must be from halaal money.

Not accepting is of two types: Allah accepts only that which is good.
1) Unacceptance where the worship is invalid. 2) Unacceptance where the worship is valid.
The Messenger said Allah does not accept the salaah of any of you if he invalidates his wudu till he makes wudu. The Messenger said khamr is the mother of all evils. Whoever drinks it his salaah will not be accepted for 40 days and if he dies with alcohol in his belly he will die a death of Jahilliyyah. The Messenger said the salaah of women who applies perfume and comes to the masjid till she goes back and takes a ghusl like that of janaba. The Messenger said ‘charity from stealing is not accepted.” These are 4 situations, two of these are for the 1st category and two for the second category. The Salaah of the woman who applied perfume in the masjid, is her salaah not accepted? Does she need to make up her salaah? Or is it that she is not rewarded for it. So is the salaah of the one who drinks alcohol. He will not get the reward but he does not have to make up the salaah. In the other two instances if he does salaah without wudu he has to redo the salaah and if he gives charity out of stolen money it is not accepted.

Allah ordered the believers with what he ordered the Messengers. This is raising the status of the believers, where the believer has a good feeling that he is asked to do what the Messengers were asked to do. And he feels an awe taht he is asked to do what the Messengers were asked to do. This shows a high status and that they are loved by Allah. The Scholars said the general ruling where the Messenger is addressed the Ummah enters it automatically. For example, Allah said:”Call to the way of your Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching”. Call here is mentioned in the singular form, this is addressing to the Messenger and his Ummah. They are included because they are his ummah and they follow his sunnah. So we have to call with wisdom and beautiful preaching. This is a general
ruling. When Allah tells the Messenger that We have made halaal for you women…this is specifically for the Messenger alone. So generally we are included in the order but when it is specific for the Messenger we aren’t. Some Scholars said that the order is for every believer reader who reads it. There is a beneft in it that the Messengers themselves are ordered and prohibited on them. It is not just us who are ordered. It gives us a good feeling that it is for everyone not just me. Everything that is halaal is tayyib when it comes to food.

The good in the actions is the ones that have ikhlas and itibaa in it. When you remember that this Blessing is from Allah should not allow you to use it in an evil way but should use it in a good way. The ruling on eating are many different things, if one is dying of hunger and he is abstaining yourself from eating then that is haraam, it is mustahab if you eat to increase your strength to worship. Eating is obligatory for the believer. Some said this is limiting the eating with good things alone. So the most correct is eating is obligatory to keep one alive. If eating is done in excess it can be makrooh or haraam.

Then he mentioned [the case] of a man who, having journeyed far, is disheveled and dusty, and who spreads out his hands to the sky saying: “O Lord! O Lord!”, while his food is Haraam (unlawful), his drink is Haraam, his clothing is Haraam, and he has been nourished with Haraam, so how can [his supplication] be answered ?! [Narrated by Muslim.]

Three dua’s are accepted 1) thar of the oppressed 2) duaa of the father for his son 3) duaa of a traveller. This is stated in the hadith:
Abu Hurairah narrated from the Messenger, “Three supplications are accepted , there is no doubt in them (about them being accepted): The supplication of the oppressed, the supplication of the traveler, and the supplication of his father against his son.”

In the hadith the traveller is described as dishevelled and dirty, and he is calling upon Allah and making tawassul with his condition. He is raising his hands to the sky, in it is a daleel that Allah is above the sky. The other proof is the names of Allah that show He is above His creation, like A’la, ‘Aalee like Al Mutaalee, wad Dahirun. There are seven ayah that mention the istawa of Allah as suits His Majesty. Surah Ara’f ayah 54, Surah Younus ayah 3, Surah Ra’d ayah 2, Surah Taha ayah 5, Surah Furqan ayah 59, Surah Sajda ayah 4 and Surah Al-Qamar ayah 4.

Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah’s Messenger said, “If somebody gives in charity something equal to a date from his honestly earned money, for nothing ascends to Allah except good… then Allah will take it in His Right (Hand) and bring it up for its owner as anyone of you brings up a baby horse, till it becomes like a mountain.” Abu Huraira said: The Prophet. said, “Nothing ascends to Allah except good. (Sahih Al-Bukhari)

Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah (?) said: Angels take turns among you by night and by day, and they all assemble at the dawn and afternoon prayers. Those (of the angels) who spend the night among you, then, ascend, and their Lord asks them, though He is the best informed about them: How did you leave My servants? They say: We left them while they were praying and we came to them while they were praying.(Sahih Al-Bukhari)

Another evidence is the evidence that shows that Allah is above the sky. In Surah Mulk ayah 16. Do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (Allah), will not cause the earth to sink with you, then behold it shakes (as in an earthquake)?

Narrated Anas: “When this Ayah was revealed about Zainab bint Jahsh: ‘So when Zaid had completed his aim with her, We gave her to you in marriage (33:37)’ he said: “She used to boast to the wives of the Prophet (?): ‘Your families married you (to him) while Allah married me (to him) from above the Seven Heavens.’” (At-Tirmidhi) (Al-Bukhari).

Imam Maalik was asked about the istiwa, he lowered his head and began to sweat profusely then he said, 1) Istawa is not unknown, 2) the kayf is incomprehendable, 3) believing in it is obligatory and 4) asking about is innovation.

Nu`aym bin Hammad Al-Khuza’i, the teacher of Imam Al-Bukhari, who said, “Whoever likens Allah with His creation, will have committed Kufr. Whoever denies what Allah has described Himself with, will have committed Kufr. Certainly, there is no resemblance (of Allah with the creation) in what Allah and His Messenger have described Him with. Whoever attests to Allah’s attributes that the plain Ayat and authentic Hadiths have mentioned, in the manner that suits Allah’s majesty, all the while rejecting all shortcomings from Him, will have taken the path of guidance.”

The person mentioned in the hadith calls out to Allah saying O Lord, O Lord. A lot of Messengers call Allah by His ruboobiyyah, the Ruboobiyyah of Allah is addressed as O Lord or Rabb shows that as the witnessed the Rububiyyah of Allah. How He protected, nourished. In the hadith it says that haraam clothes, haraam food, haraam, his drink is haraam and he is nourished with haraam. So we know that one who has all these categories theit duaa is not accepted.

Notes From Sharh (Explanation):

And this is one of those ahaadeeth upon which the Principles and Rulings of Islaam are built. And in it is encouragement towards spending upon that which is Halaal, and forbiddance from spending upon that which is other than that. And that what is eaten, and what is drunk and what is worn, and all such similar things should be purely Halaal, without any doubt in them. And that whosoever wishes to supplicate to Allaah should humble and submit himself before his Lord with that which is Halaal. And from the hadeeth we also understand that when the slave spends upon the good, Halaal things then these things purify him and bring him prosperity. And that delicious and tasty food which is not permissible to eat will instead be a source of evil and punishment, and the actions of the slave will then not be acceptable by Allaah.

And his (صلى الله عليه وسلم) statement “Then he mentioned [the case] of a man who, having journeyed far, is disheveled and dusty…” then its meaning is best known by Allaah. But we know from other ahaadeeth that the supplication of the traveler is more readily acceptable to Allaah, and a ‘long journey’ could be from amongst the actions of worship, such as the Hajj or Jihaad or other than that from the pious actions. And even in this case his supplication is still not accepted because his food, drink and clothing are Haraam. So how about the case of the one who is travelling for some purpose of the dunyaa, or for oppressing the people, or those who are ignorant of the various types of worship and goodness.

And his (صلى الله عليه وسلم) statement: “who spreads out his hands to the sky” means that he raises his hands in supplication to Allaah ‘azza wa jall, while at the same time he is opposing His commands and is sinning. And his (صلى الله عليه وسلم) statement: “so how can [his supplication] be answered ?!” and in another narration “so how can he be answered because of that ?!”, means that there cannot be an answer for the one who possesses such characteristics. Such a person cannot be amongst those whose supplication will be answered, unless Allaah the Almighty does so out of His infinite Grace and Kindness and Generosity, and Allaah knows best.

Unacceptance is of two types: 1) Unacceptance the worship is invalid 2) Unacceptance and the worship is valid.

Which means In the hadith of Abdurrahman:

One day I happened to pass that way and found that a wolf had carried a goat from her flock. I am after all a man from the posterity of Adam. I felt sorry as they (human beings) feel sorry. So I slapped her. I came to the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and felt (this act of mine) as something grievous I said: Messenger of Allah, should I not grant her freedom? He (the Holy Prophet) said: Bring her to me. So I brought her to him. He said to her: Where is Allah? She said: He is in the heaven. He said: Who am I? She said: Thou art the Messenger of Allah. He said: Grant her freedom, she is a believing woman. (Sahih Muslim)

Adullah bin Amr reported that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:

“Be merciful to those on earth, so that the One above the heavens will be merciful to you.”

Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah’s Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “When Allah decrees some order in the heaven, the angels flutter their wings indicating complete surrender to His saying which sounds like chains being dragged on rock. And when the state of fear disappears, they ask each other, “What has your Lord ordered? They say that He has said that which is true and just, and He is the Most High, the Most Great.” (34.23). (Sahih Al-Bukhari)

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “The angel of death used to appear to people whose souls he would collect. When he came to the Prophet of Allaah, Musa alayhis-salaam to collect his soul, Musa punched out his eye. The angel of death ascended to his Rubb, the Glorious, and said to Him, My Rabb! You have sent me down to Musa who punched out my eye. Had he not been honored by You, I would have given him hard time…” The angel of death descended to Musa from the eaven to collect his soul. He did not come to him from east, west, north, or south, nor did he emerge from the earth, and then he ascended to His Rabb Who is above the heavens.

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “There are hundred levels in Jannah which Allaah has prepared for the Mujahideen who fight in His cause. Between on level and another is a distance which is equal to that between the earth and the heaven. When you ask Allaah, azza wajull, ask Him for Firdaws, because it is situated in the midst and Highest point of Jannah from where the rivers of Jannah spring, and above it is the ‘Arsh of the Most Merciful.”

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “Our Rubb, the Blessed, the Exalted, descends to the lowest heaven every night, during the last third of the night, and says: ‘Anyone calls Me, I will respond to him? Is there anyone asking for anything? I will give it to him? Is there anyone seeking My forgiveness, I will forgive him?’ ” (Sahih Al-Bukhari)

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “Allaah will descend to His slaves on the Day of Resurrection.”

Zainab, the wife of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), used to claim excellence over the rest of his wives by telling them, ‘It is only your parents who gave you in marriage to
the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), while it is Allaah Who gave me in marriage to him from above the seven heavens.’

In his speech subsequent to the death of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), Abu Bakr as-Saddiq said:

“He who was worshipping Muhammed (صلى الله عليه وسلم), (let him know that) Muhammed is dead, and he who was worshipping Allaah, (let him know that) Allaah is above the heaven Ever-Living, never dies’.”

How do they think that Allah nothing is like Him so how can anyone know what it is that He wants to convey? Because this means Jibreal has knowledge of the Unseen.

Invite (mankind, O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) to the Way of your Lord (i.e. Islâm) with wisdom (i.e. with the Divine Inspiration and the Qur’ân) and fair preaching, and argue with them in a way that is better. Truly, your Lord knows best who has gone astray from His Path, and He is the Best Aware of those who are guided. (An-Nahl 16:125)

“Subhan-Allah (Allah is free from imperfection), Al-hamdu lillah (all praise is due to Allah), La ilaha illallah (there is no true god except Allah) and Allahu Akbar (Allah is the Greatest)’ is dearer to me than anything over which the sun rises.”

Summary:

That Allaah accepts only that which is good.
That every believer is obliged to do that which the Messengers were obliged to do (except what is specifically exempted).
That every Muslim must eat only Halaal and must take great care that he has avoided eating whatever he knew to be Haraam or suspicious.
That performing righteous deeds is waajib for every one of us.
That frequently we turn to Allaah for help while we do not try to eat, drink, maintain ourselves and earn in a pure way.
That if we do not take care of the above then our prayers will not be effective.
That it is correct to raise ones hands while asking Allaah for something.

Hadith 9 :Obligations Are According to Ability

On the authority of Abu Hurairah, ‘Abd-ur-Rahmaan ibn Sakhr (رضي الله عنه) who said: I heard the Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) say: “What I have forbidden for you, avoid. What I have ordered you [to do], do as much of it as you can. For verily, it was only the excessive questioning and their disagreeing with their Prophets that destroyed [the nations] who were before you”. [Related by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]

Brief biography. He was called Abu Hurairah because he grazed sheep and had a little cat he used to play with. So the people gave him this kunyah father of the cat. Abu Hurairah was an adept memorizer and he came to Islam in the year they fought at Khaybar. He had accompanied the Messenger in Khaibar. He cared a lot about acquiring knowledge and memorizing of hadith. The Messenger said Abu Hurairah was the biggest hadith memorizer of his time. Abu hurairah has himself said that,”I don’t know anyone from amongst the Companions of the Messenger who has memorized more hadith than I”. More than 800 Companions narrated from him like Jabir Ibn Abdillah, Ibn Umar, Anas and others. Sa’eed Ibn Musayyib from the Tabi’een and others. He has narrated more than 5300 hadith.

One day, Abu Huraira went to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) crying and said:”

O Messenger of Allah! I have been calling on my mother to embrace Islam but she refuses, and I did so today but she insulted you, so ask Allah to guide her to Islam!”, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:” O Allah! Guide Abu Huraira’s mother to Islam!) Abu Huraira hurried to tell his mother that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) prayed to Allah to guide her to Islam, but when he arrived at the door, he heard a sound of water and her mother said:” stay where you are Abu Huraira!”, then she put on her garment and went out saying:” I bear witness that there is no God but Allah and that Muhammad is His Messenger”. Abu Huraira went to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) crying of joy and said:” O Messenger of Allah! Allah has listened to your supplication and guided my mother to Islam”. Then, he said ” O Messenger of Allah! Ask Allah to make all believers, men and women, love me and my mother!”, The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:” O Allah! Make the believers, men and women, love Abu Huraira and his mother!”.

Narrated Abu Huraira: By Allah except Whom none has the right to- be worshipped, (sometimes) I used to lay (sleep) on the ground on my liver (abdomen) because of hunger, and (sometimes) I used to bind a stone over my belly because of hunger. One day I sat by the way from where they (the Prophet and his companions) used to come out. When Abu Bakr passed by, I asked him about a Verse from Allah’s Book and I asked him only that he might satisfy my hunger, but he passed by and did not do so. Then Umar passed by me and I asked him about a Verse from Allah’s Book, and I asked him only that he might satisfy my hunger, but he passed by without doing so. Finally Abul – Qasim (the Prophet) passed by me and he smiled when he saw me, for he knew what was in my heart and on my face. He said, “O Aba Hirr (Abu Huraira)!” I replied, “Labbaik, O Allah’s Apostle!” He said to me, “Follow me.” He left and I followed him. Then he entered the house and I asked permission to enter and was admitted. He found milk in a bowl and said, “From where is this milk?” They said, “It has been presented to you by such-and-such man (or by such and such woman).” He said, “O Aba Hirr!” I said, “Labbaik, O Allah’s Apostle!” He said, “Go and call the people of Suffa to me.” These people of Suffa were the guests of Islam who had no families, nor money, nor anybody to depend upon, and whenever an object of charity was brought to the Prophet , he would send it to them and would not take anything from it, and whenever any present was given to him, he used to send some for them and take some of it for himself. The order off the Prophet upset me, and I said to myself, “How will this little milk be enough for the people of As-Suffa?” I thought I was more entitled to drink from that milk in order to strengthen myself, but behold! The Prophet came to order me to give that milk to them. I wondered what will remain of that milk for me, but anyway, I could not but obey Allah and His Apostle so I went to the people of As-Suffa and called them, and they came and asked the Prophet’s permission to enter. They were admitted and took their seats in the house. The Prophet said, “O Aba-Hirr!” I said, “Labbaik, O Allah’s Apostle!” He said, “Take it and give it to them.” So I took the bowl (of Milk) and started giving it to one man who would drink his fill and return it to me, whereupon I would give it to another man who, in his turn, would drink his fill and return it to me, and I would then offer it to another man who would drink his fill and return it to me. Finally, after the whole group had drunk their fill, I reached the Prophet who took the bowl and put it on his hand, looked at me and smiled and said. “O Aba Hirr!” I replied, “Labbaik, O Allah’s Apostle!” He said, “There remain you and I.” I said, “You have said the truth, O Allah’s Apostle!” He said, “Sit down and drink.” I sat down and drank. He said, “Drink,” and I drank. He kept on telling me repeatedly to drink, till I said, “No. by Allah Who sent you with the Truth, I have no space for it (in my stomach).” He said, “Hand it over to me.” When I gave him the bowl, he praised Allah and pronounced Allah’s Name on it and drank the remaining milk.

Abu Hurairah had a thirst for knowledge for which he used to remain close to the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم). Most times he was so hungry and needy that he would swoon between the minbar and the grave, that the people used to call him majnoon.

Narrated Al-A’raj: Abu Huraira said, “You people claim that Abu Huraira narrates many narrations of Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم). (Anyhow) with Allah will be our appointment. I was a poor man, and used to stick to Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) contented with what will fill my stomach, and the Muhajirin (emigrants) used to be busy trading in the markets, and the Ansar used to be busy looking after their properties. One-day I heard Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) saying, ‘Who will spread his Rida’ (a garment covering the upper part of the body) till I finished my speech and then fold it, (i.e. wrap it over your body), in which case he will never forget anything he had heard from me.” So I spread my garment which I was wearing; and by Him Who sent Muhammad with the Truth, ever since, I have never forgotten whatever I heard from him (the Prophet)” (Sahih Al-Bukhari)

He died in the year 57 or 58.

My notes:

This hadith is from the foundations of Islam.

1) The obligation of avoiding everything the Messenger prohibited from, big or small. He prohibited us from drinking alcohol so we don’t drink a drop or more.
2) The general state is that it is haraam that there is evidence that shows us it is makrooh or disliked.
So we see that there are two kinds of prohibitions, one is where something is completely prohibited and another is when it is disliked. So it is better that you stay away but if you do it you are not sinful. There are many examples that are given by the Scholars. In arabic the word is “ijtanibu” meaning be on one side and let the prohibited thing be on the other side. Which means you should be far away from the prohibited things. When you are told to keep away from something it does not sound as serious as when you are told don’t even come close to that thing. So here the Messenger says don’t even come close to the prohibitions, which means stay away completely from them, let the thing be on the east and you be in the west. As in the ayah it does not say don’t do zina it says don’t even go close to it:

And come not near to the unlawful sexual intercourse. Verily, it is a Fâhishah [i.e. anything that transgresses its limits (a great sin)], and an evil way (that leads one to Hell unless Allâh forgives him). (Surah Al-Isra 17:32)

Rulings change with necessity. If someone were to be stranded for example and only had pork to eat, then it is permissible to eat enough to survive and not to get his fill from it.

This hadith is very important, it is from the foundations of the Deen and is used a lot in fiqh issues.

According to the Scholars these are the rulings:

1) Haraam or Prohibited, is anything that if you do it you are sinful, and if you abstain from it you are rewarded.
2) The definition of Makrooh or disliked is if you do it then you are not sinful but if you stay away from it you are rewarded.
3) The ruling for Wajib or Obligatory, if you do it you are rewarded if you don’t do it you are sinful.
4) The ruling for Mustahab or Recomended, if you do it you are rewarded and if you don’t do it you are not sinful.
5) The ruling for Mubah or permissible, if you do or you dont it is the same. Both sides are equal.

Every ruling differs according to the intention that you have. For example if you buy a knife to slaughter for Allah then it is obligatory but if you buy a knife to kill someone
with it then it is haraam. If you want to teach someone english so that they find ease in their dawaah then you are rewarded for it but if you teach someone english to promote evil then that is not allowed.

The Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,” What I have ordered you [to do], do as much of it as you can…”. This is the second part of the hadith, here the Messenger tells us to do as much as we are able. And this part is an order.

Order is of two types: 1) Order of Obligation and 2) Order of Recommendation.

In the order of obligation the Messenger ordered, then you do as much as you according to your ability.

In the order of recommendation, as in the night salaah, you do as much as you are able.
If this thing is obligatory like salaah, a person cannot stand for salaah, so he does it to the best of his ability. Same for fasting, it is recommended that you fast Mondays and Thursdays, so you fast to the best of your ability. Another example is, if a person has a small quantity of water and he needs to do wudu and he knows it is not sufficient for his wudu then what should he do. Some Scholars have used this hadith and have said he uses this water to wash the parts he is able to and later he makes Tayammum. If you can just wash your hands and face then do that much. Some scholars have said you don’t combine between the actions. As in you do not do wudu and Tayammum both. As Allah has said if you don’t find water then do Tayammum. So if the water is not sufficient then do Tayammum. You don’t combine the substitute of the wudu with wudu. This is the strong opinion.

Ibn Mas’ud (May Allah be pleased with him) reported:The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Ruined are those who insist on hardship in matters of the Faith.” He repeated this three times. (Sahih Muslim)

Zakaat al fitr is one sa’ so if a person has half a sa’ can he give it? The Scholars said yes you can. Because you are giving as much as you are able. And you are not substituting it with anything, you are applying this hadith that says do (give) as much as you are able.
Another thing is you see a lot of Munkar happening in front of you, so what do you do. Do you ignore it all and move away or do you stop as much as you can? You change as much as you can and changing the munkar is obligatory on you. If you are not able to change everything but a little then you change as much as you are able.

Order of Obligation is a must upon you but the order of recommendation is that you do as much as you are able. How come when it comes to the prohibition the Messenger says stay away from it completely but when it comes to the order of doing something good we are told to do as much as we can. Staying away from something everybody is able to stay away and not do it. It does not need much effort but doing something entails work. Like if you ask a person to stand and perform the salaah and he does not have feet. He can’t do that as he is not able, but if you ask a person not to steal then he has to just prevent his nafs, he does not have to make an effort to stop aka there is no physical action involved by him to stop himself.

What is more in the Deen Obligations or Prohibitions? There are very few prohibition, when it comes to things that are permissible. See how many things you can and how many you can’t, this is from the Mercy of Allah. What is more dangerous leaving an obligation or staying away from a prohibition? The Scholars have said staying away from a prohibition because the Messenger said that the fire is surrounded by desires. Which means it is very difficult to fight your desires, so if he was able to fight his desires then he has done something great. This is one opinion, another opinion is that obligation is more important than prohibitions. And they quoted an evidence, was it Adam who did a prohibition or Iblis who disobeyed the order. So this is the correct opinion. The first thing you are asked about is the salaah. One must know the orders and prohibitions like riba. You stay away from it completely.

Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope… (Surah Al-Baqarah 2:286)
We tax not any person beyond his scope… (Surah Al-A’raf 7:42)

This hadith is a reply to the Jabariyyah. As the Jabariyyah say that you are not able to do anything, the movements of your hands are actually not your movements but you are forced. So this hadith says “Do as much as you are able”.

There are three opinions people have 1) they say we are forced to do our actions, like the Jabariyyah 2) one side says Allah will not know what we will do, like the Qadariyyah or 3) They say we create our own actions and Allah has no ability to guide our hearts and guide us to Islam. And Allah has no ability to misguide the kaafir. He does not do that even if He is able to because then that is Oppression. They neglect and reject the attributes of Allah like the Asha’ira who say Allah does not do anything with Wisdom but it is just mere action. The Scholars have replied to this allegation, Allah wants to do something He does it without a doubt. He just says ‘Koon’ and it happens ‘Fayakoon’ with His Wisdom. They say we don’t know anyone in this world who is wise except that he wants to benefit himself.

The Asharis confirm the names but they neglect the attributes. They make ta`weel of the attributes inside the names, they negate the siffat. The Asharis attribute just seven attributes to Allah. They confirms Power, Will, Knowledge, Life, Hearing, Seeing, and Speech. Yazid ibn Haroon the Shaykh of Imam Bukhari was asked who is the Jahmi? He replied the one who tries to change the heart of a layman about “thumma `istawa ‘alal ‘Arshi” is a Jahmi.

Then the Messenger says, For verily, it was only the excessive questioning and their disagreeing with their Prophets that destroyed [the nations] who were before you”. This shows that questioning can be a reason for punishment or destruction, What kind of questioning? The Scholars said those things that you have no need for and are not beneficial, these can be a reason for destruction. Questions that mock, there isn’t a need for such questions or questions about things that the Shariah has not imposed on you. Like in this hadith:

Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) reported: The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) delivered a Khutbah and said, “O people! Hajj (pilgrimage to the House of Allah) has been made incumbent upon you, so perform Hajj.” A man inquired: “O Messenger of Allah, is it prescribed every year?” He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) remained silent till the man repeated it thrice. Then he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “Had I replied in the affirmative, it would have surely become obligatory, and you would not have been able to fulfill it.” Afterwards he said, “Do not ask me so long as I do not impose anything upon you, because those who were before you were destroyed on account of their frequent questioning and their disagreement with their Prophets. So when I order you to do something, do it as far as you can; and when I forbid you from doing anything, eschew it.” (Sahih Muslim).

Also like the Jews in Surah Baqarah, where they kept asking about the cow they were asked to slaughter:

They said, “Call upon your Lord for us that He may make plain to us what it is!” He said, “He says, ‘Verily, it is a cow neither too old nor too young, but (it is) between the two conditions’, so do what you are commanded.” They said, “Call upon your Lord for us to make plain to us its colour.” He said, “He says, ‘It is a yellow cow, bright in its colour, pleasing to the beholders.’” They said, “Call upon your Lord for us to make plain to us what it is. Verily to us all cows are alike, And surely, if Allâh wills, we will be guided.” (Surah Al-Baqarah 2:68-70)

The questions the innovators ask about nuzool (descend in the last part of the night) of Allah. They have many questions regarding this. Differing is not good and Ahlul Sunnah do not like or want to differ. We need to stick to the Sunnah of teh Messenger the Ahlul sunnah do not like to differ they like to remain on one Aqeedah.

And those who say: “Our Lord! Bestow on us from our wives and our offspring the comfort of our eyes, and make us leaders for the Muttaqûn” (pious – see V.2:2).” (Surah Al-Furqan 25:74). The Scholars explained this ayah saying they are all like one Imam one Man, on one Deen, they have one heart, they all call to one Allah therefore they are one Imam.

We must therefore stay away from the Prohibitions and do what we have been ordered to do and refrain from excessive questioning.

Notes From Sharh (Explanation):

The wording of this hadeeth in Saheeh Muslim, from Abu Hurairah radiAllaah ‘anhu, states:

The Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) addressed us and said:”O People! Hajj has been made obligatory upon you, so perform the Hajj.” So a man asked: “Is that every year, O Messenger of Allaah?” So the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) remained silent until the man repeated his question three times. Then he said: “If I had said ‘yes’ then it would have become obligatory upon you [i.e. every year], and you would not have been able to do so. Do not ask me about that which I have left [unspecified], for verily the nations before you were destroyed by their excessive questioning and their disagreeing with their Prophets. So if I order you with something then do as much of it as you are able, and if I forbid you from something then keep away from it.”

And the Scholars of Usool (i.e. in Fiqh) have differed over the issue of the Command to perform an action – does it imply repetition? That is, if we are ordered to do something then does that automatically imply that we must do it repeatedly? Or does it mean that doing it once is sufficient unless otherwise specified? For example, we are commanded with Hajj but that is just once in a lifetime, but we are also commanded with Salaah and that is every day. So most of the Fuqahaa (jurists) have decided that a command does not automatically imply repetition. Others have said that we do not rule that it implies repetition nor do we rule that it does not imply repetition, except with a further evidence that indicates one or the other. And this hadeeth is a proof for those who have the latter opinion. For if there were an automatically implied ruling of either repetition or no repetition then the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) would not have replied “If I had said yes then it would have become obligatory, and you would not have been able to do that.” Rather, if there had been an automatic implication of repetition or otherwise, then the man would not have asked the question in the first place.

And as for his (صلى الله عليه وسلم) statement “Do not ask me about that which I have left [unspecified]” then this apparently indicates that a command does not imply repetition, and also that the origin of all affairs is that they are not waajib, until the Sharee’ah specifies them as being waajib. And this is the correct position according to the majority of the Scholars of Usool.

And his (صلى الله عليه وسلم) statement: “If I had said yes it would have become obligaotory upon you” is an evidence that he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) would make ijtihaad in rulings, and that it was not binding upon him that all rulings be made by Revelation.

And his (صلى الله عليه وسلم) statement: “What I have ordered you [to do], do as much of it as you can” is an important Principle of Islaam, and is from his Concise speech. And based upon this principle are countless other rulings – such as the Prayer of one who is unable to complete some of its pillars or conditions, then he performs what he is able to from that which remains. And the one who cannot wash all the necessary limbs of wudoo’, washes that which he is able to. And in the case of removing evil, then if one is not able to remove it entirely then one removes what one is able to. And many other affairs like these, as are well known from the Books of Fiqh. And this hadeeth is similar to the statement of Allaah ta’aalaa:

“And have taqwaa of Allaah, as much as you are able” [at-Taghaabun, 16]

And as for His statement:

“O you who believe! Fear Allaah as He should be feared” [aal ‘Imraan, 102]

then it has been said that this is abrogated by the Ayah “And have taqwaa of Allaah, as much as you are able”. However, what is correct is that it is not abrogated, but rather the first aayah is an explanation of this aayah, and makes clear what is intended by it. And it has been said that “fearing Allaah as He should be feared” means obeying Him all in that He has commanded, and staying away from all that He has forbidden, and Allaah subhaanahu does not order us except with that which we are able to do, as verily Allaah has said: “Allaah does not burden a soul more than it can bear” [al-Baqarah, 286]
“and [Allaah] has not laid upon you in religion any hardship” [al-Hajj, 78]

And as for his (صلى الله عليه وسلم) statement: “and what I have forbidden you from then avoid it” then this is to be taken to apply generally in all situations, except if one has a necessity, such as eating meat from an animal which has not been correctly slaughtered if one’s life is in danger or what is similar to that, then that is not considered to be forbidden. However, in all conditions other than that of necessity the individual is not considered to have fulfilled this forbiddance of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) until he leaves all those things which the Sharee’ah forbids. So he does not fulfill the forbiddance if he continues to practise even one of the forbidden things. This is in opposition to what has been commanded to do, for in terms of the commands we must do whatever we are able.

And in his (صلى الله عليه وسلم) statement: “verily the nations before you were destroyed due to their excessive questioning and disagreeing with their Prophets”, then this was mentioned after his saying “Do not ask me about that which I have left [unspecified]”. And this implies that we should not be excessive in questioning, as then we would be similar to the Banoo Israa’eel when it was said to them: “Sacrifice a cow”. So if they had taken these words upon their apparent meaning and sacrificed any cow they would have fulfilled the command. But because they insisted on asking many questions regarding its colour, its appearance, its work etc, the matter became difficult for them, until they were able to find a suitable cow only after a great search and paying a large sum of money. So they were blameworthy for this, and our Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) feared the same for his Ummah.

Summary:

That what is Haraam must be avoided.
That one must make sure that one has a satisfactory plea to present to Allaah for not doing what the Messenger sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam has ordered.
That one must not ask too many questions. Ideally, one only wants to know what Islaam says [about a thing] and do that.
That asking too many questions and disagreeing with the Messenger sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam can cause our destruction. If it happened to the people before us it can happen
to us too.

Haraam/Prohibited: the act if one does he is sinful and if abstained from you are reward.
Waajib/Obligatory: the act if one does you are rewarded and if abandoned you are sinful.
Mub`ah/Permissible: neither sinful if left off or rewarded if done
Makrooh/Disliked; rewarded if left off and disliked if done
Mustahab/Recommended; rewarded if done and not sinful if left off

And those who say: “Our Lord! Bestow on us from our wives and our offspring who will be the comfort of our eyes, and make us leaders for the Muttaqûn” (pious – see V.2:2
and the footnote of V.3:164).” (Al-Furqan 25:74)

Hadith 8 : The Sanctity Of A Muslim

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Bismillahir-Rahman-nir-Raheem

In the Name of Allah The most Gracious The Most Merciful

On the authority of the Ibn ‘Umar (رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا) that the Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: I have been ordered to fight against the people until they testify that there is none worthy of Worship except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah, and until they establish the Salaah and pay the Zakaah. And if they do that then they will have gained protection from me for their lives and property, unless [they commit acts that are punishable] in Islaam, and their Reckoning will be with Allaah. [Related by Bukhaaree and Muslim]

My Notes:

From this hadith we understand the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is a slave of Allah. He is ordered and he has been prohibited. Here in this hadith it says to fight the people. The Messenger has been sent for every person so every person should do everything that is mentioned in the shahadah and all of the obligations that are in Islam. All people should be asked to do everything.

The first obligation on people is Tawheed unlike people of ahlul qalaam, who say you are born a Muslim, no wait first you determine if you are a Muslim. Nor as some say the first obligation is Tawheed. We have already discussed the meaning of La ilaha illalllah. Are these people warned before warning or after. The assl is that they are asked to accept Islam.

So three things happen here: 1) They pay Jiziyyah 2) They accept Islam or 3) We fight them. There is no compulsion in religion. You have these three things. There is one opinion that says these three things are valid for the mushrikeen from amongst the Jews and the Christians. And for the mushrikeen other than that it is only 2 things: 1) we fight them 2) they accept Islam. There is another opinion that says that this is applicable to everyone. So entering Islam is not the only choice. The people of the book can tell us that they want to pay jiziyah and that they do not want to accept Islam. To establish the salaah and to pay zakaat. This has already been established in the earlier ahadith. This also proves that if a group of people stop us from praying or giving zakaat we must fight them.

The next point in the hadith is to establish the salaah and to pay zakaat. This has already been established in the earlier ahadith. This also proves that if a group of people stop us from praying or giving zakaat we must fight them. The Scholars said if people do not allow us to give adhaan we must fight them. This is not an individual decision it has to be done with a Ruler. The Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said if they do that then their blood is protected by me. So nobody is allowed to kill him or take his money except for the right of Islam. Like fornication has a hadd on him. If you have the hadd established on someone then it has to e carried out. Maybe some will lie to you about their acceptance of Islam that is not your business, their reckoning is with Allah. You cannot see into their hearts or their minds. You believe them if the pronounce the shahadah in front of you.

Al Miqdad bin Al Aswad reported that he said: “Apostle of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) tell me if I meet a man who is a disbeliever and he fights with me and cuts off one hand of mine with the sword and then takes refuge by a tree and says “I embraced Islam for Allah’s sake. Should I kill him, Apostle of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) after he uttered it (the credo of Islam)? The Apostle of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said “Do not kill him”. I said “Apostle of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم), he cut off my hand. The Apostle of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, Do not kill him. I f you kill him, he will become like you before you kill him and you will become like him before he uttered his credo which he has uttered now. (Sunan Abi Dawood)

Usamah bin Zaid (رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا) reported: Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) sent us to Huraqat, a tribe of Juhainah. We attacked that tribe early in the morning and defeated them, (then) a man from the Ansar and I caught hold of a man (of the defeated tribe). When we overcame him, he said: ‘La ilaha illallah (There is no true god except Allah).’ At that moment, the Ansari spared him, but I attacked him with my spear and killed him. By the time we went back to Al-Madinah, news had already reached Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم). He said to me, “O Usamah, did you kill him after he professed La ilaha illallah (There is no true god except Allah)?” I said, “O Messenger of Allah! He professed it only to save his life.” Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) repeated, “Did you kill him after he had professed La ilaha illallah?” He went on repeating this to me until I wished I had not embraced Islam before that day (so that I would have not committed this sin). [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

This hadith is a reply to the Murjiah who say that actions are not important. If a group of people accept Islam and say no don’t want to pray or give zakaat that is not allowed. Some people said we will not celebrate Eid so some scholars said they should be fought against by a ruler.

Notes From Sharh (explanation):

This is a Great Hadeeth and a Principle from amongst the Principles of the Religion. It has also been narrated by Anas (رضي الله عنه) whose version mentions:
“Until they testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger, and accept our Qiblah, and eat from what we slaughter, and and pray our Salaah. And if they do all that, then their blood and wealth is Protected except from the Rights of Islaam. And for them is what is for the Muslims and upon them is what is upon the Muslims.”

And it has come in Saheeh Muslim from the narration of Abu Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه): “Until they testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah and believe in me and in what I have come with” and this has the same meaning as what Ibn ‘Umar narrated.

Narrated on the authority of Humaid: Anas bin Malik said, “Whenever the Prophet went out with us to fight (in Allah’s cause) against any nation, he never allowed us to attack till morning and he would wait and see: if he heard Adhan he would postpone the attack and if he did not hear Adhan he would attack them.” Anas added, “We reached Khaibar at night and in the morning when he did not hear the Adhan for the prayer, he (the Prophet ) rode and I rode behind Abi Talha and my foot was touching that of the Prophet. The inhabitants of Khaibar came out with their baskets and spades and when they saw the Prophet they shouted ‘Muhammad! By Allah, Muhammad and his army.’ When Allah’s Apostle saw them, he said, “Allahu-Akbar! Allahu-Akbar! Khaibar is ruined. Whenever we approach a (hostile) nation (to fight), then evil will be the morning of those who have been warned.”

As for the meaning of this hadeeth, then the scholars of seerah have said:
After the death of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq radiAllaahu ‘anhu became the Khaleefah, and some of the Arab tribes apostasized, so Abu Bakr prepared to fight them. And amongst them were those who refused to pay the Zakaah, but who had not explicitly apostasized. So ‘Umar radiAllaahu ‘anhu said to Abu Bakr: “How can you fight a people who have said ‘laa ilaaha illaa Allaah’ and the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said ‘I have been ordered to fight the people until they say ‘laa ilaaha illaa Allaah’?” So Abu Bakr radiAllaahu ‘anhu replied : “By Allaah! If they refuse to pay (in Zakaah) a young goat that they used to pay the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), I will fight them.” And ‘Umar radiAllaahu ‘anhu followed him in doing this.

Regarding the statement of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) “I have been ordered to fight the people until they say ‘laa ilaahaa illaa Allaah’ …” al-Khattaabee rahimahu Allaah and others said: The people referred to here are the idol worshippers and the mushriks of the Arabs, and those who do not believe apart from the People of the Book. And whoever approves of Tawheed from his own religion of Kufr, then his statement of ‘laa ilaaha illaa Allaah’ is not enough to protect his blood and wealth, as has come in other narrations that mention that one must also believe that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah, and establish the Salaah, and pay the Zakaah.

And Shaykh Muyee ad-Deen an-Nawawee said: “And it is necessary that he believes along with this in all that the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) came with, as is mentioned in the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah : ‘until they testify that none is worthy of worship except Allaah, and believe in me and in all that I come with’”.

And the meaning of his (صلى الله عليه وسلم) statement: “and their Reckoning will be with Allaah” refers to those matters which they hide from the people, i.e. those things other than that which is outwardly apparent from the compulsory actions. Al-Khattaabee mentions this and then says:

“And from this is that the one who outwardly shows Islaam but secretly maintains Kufr, then his Islaam is accepted outwardly by the people, and this is the opinion of most of the People of Knowledge.”

And in his (صلى الله عليه وسلم) statement: “I have been ordered to fight the people until they testify that none is worthy of worship except Allaah, and believe in me and in all that I come with” is a clear proof for the position of the People of Truth and the vast majority of the Salaf and the Khalaf, that it is enough for a person to believe in the Religion of Islaam with a firm, unwavering belief, without it being necessary for him to understand the proofs of the Mutakallimoon (people of Theological Rhetoric) regarding the ‘recognition’ of Allaah through the intellect. And this opposite to the statement of those people that it is an obligatory condition for the correctness of ones eemaan. And this is clear from the fact the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) mentioned only at-Tasdeeq (belief, affirmation) and did not lay any condition for it through intellectual recognition. And this hadeeth appears a number of times in the Saheeh, and together they reach the rank of mutawaatir, without doubt yielding definite knowledge, and Allaah knows best.

Summary:

That the disbelieving people are fought until Islaam triumphs.
That it is an order from Allaah and thus waajib.
That the Ameer of the Muslims enforces protection of the lives and the properties of the Muslims.
That if a Muslim does something which deserves a punishment according to the Rulings of Islaam, then the Ameer of the Muslims must enforce that too.
That the punishments must be given, regardless of what Allaah will Judge for them (i.e. Allaah may punish them or forgive them).

Narrated usama bin Zaid: Allah’s Apostle sent us towards Al-Huruqa, and in the morning we attacked them and defeated them. I and an Ansari man followed a man from among them and when we took him over, he said, “La ilaha illal-Lah.” On hearing that, the Ansari man stopped, but I killed him by stabbing him with my spear. When we returned, the Prophet came to know about that and he said, “O usama! Did you kill him after he had said “La ilaha ilal-Lah?” I said, “But he said so only to save himself.” The Prophet kept on repeating that so often that I wished I had not embraced Islam before that day. (Sahih Al-Bukhari)

Allahu A’lam – Allah Knows Best

Becoming accustomed talking to one another in a language other than Arabic : Ibn Taymiyyah

Sheikh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah :

BECOMING accustomed talking to one another in a language other than Arabic ‎ so much so that it becomes a habit in the land, with one‎s family, with one‎s friends, in the marketplace, when addressing government representatives or authority figures or when speaking to the people of knowledge ‎ is undoubtedly Makrooh (disliked). Arabic is a symbol of Islam and the language of the Qur‎’an.

When early Muslims went to live in Syria and Egypt, where people spoke Byzantine Greek, and in Iraq and Khurasaan, where people spoke Persian, and North Africa (Al-Maghrib) where people spoke Berber, they taught the people of those countries to speak Arabic. Arabic then became the prevalent language in those lands. All people, Muslims and non-Muslims alike, spoke Arabic.

This was also the case in Khurasaan in the past. Later, they became lax with regard to language and got used to speaking Persian until it became prevalent and Arabic was forgotten by most of them. This is without doubt disliked.

It is best to be accustomed in speaking Arabic. Young people will learn it in their homes and schools, and the symbol of Islam and its people will prevail. This will make it easier to understand the Qur‎an and Sunnah, and the words of the Salaf (pious predecessors – Sahabah, Tabi‎een etc).

Language has a clear and strong effect on one‎s thinking, behavior and religious commitment. It also helps one to resemble with the early generations of this Ummah, the Companions and the Tabi‎een. Being like them improves one‎s thinking, religious commitment and behavior.

Moreover, the Arabic language itself is part of Islam, and knowing Arabic is an obligatory duty. If it is a duty to understand the Qur‎an and Sunnah ‎ and they cannot be understood without knowing Arabic ‎ then the means needed to fulfill the duty also becomes obligatory.

Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) wrote to Abu Moosa Al-Ash‎aree (May Allah be pleased with him), ‎Learn the Sunnah and learn Arabic. Learn the Qur‎an in Arabic for it is Arabic.‎

Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) also said, ‎Learn Arabic for it is part of your religion, and learn how the estate of the deceased should be divided (Faraa‎id) for these are part of your religion.‎

This command of Umar, to learn Arabic and the Shariah combines the things that are needed, as religion involves understanding words and actions. Understanding Arabic is the way to understand the words of Islam, and understanding the Sunnah is the way to understand the actions of Islam‎‎.

Iqtidaa‎us-Siraatil-Mustaqeem (2/207). Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728H) is one of the great and exceptional scholars known in Islamic history.

source: An article in the Saudi Gazette Newspaper, 17 Shawwal 1429 H edition.

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