Actions which Nullify the Fast and Require both, al-Qadha and al-Kaffarah
Meaning of al-Kaffarah and its rulings: Al-Kaffarah is to pay, in order to gain forgiveness for the sin committed in the state of fasting. This payment should be done in one of the following ways,
1. To set a slave free, if he couldn’t find any, then,
2. He should fast two consecutive months; if he couldn’t do that, then
3. He should provide food for sixty poor people on the average scale of that which he feeds his own family.
Al-Kaffarah must be carried out in the same order as mentioned above. It is not permissible to transfer from one state to another unless one cannot afford the previous option.
Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope: One who has to make al-Kaffarah but is unable to free a slave or fast two consecutive months, or feed the poor – then, nothing is binding upon him, since, Allah, the Most High, says, “Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope.”
This is also manifested from the following Hadeeth. Abu Hurayrah (radhi allahu anhu) narrates, “A man came to the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) and said, ‘O Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam)! I am destroyed.’
He (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) asked, ‘What has destroyed you?’ He said, ‘I cohabited with my wife in Ramadaan.’ He (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) asked, ‘Are you able to free a slave?’ He replied, ‘No.’ The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) asked, ‘Are you able to fast two months consecutively?’ The man replied, ‘No.’ He (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) asked, ‘Are you able to feed sixty poor people?” He replied, ‘No.’ The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said, ‘Then sit.’ So, he sat down. Then a large basket of palm leaves containing dates was brought to the Prophet and he (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said, ‘Give this in charity.’ He said, ‘There is no one between its two lava-plains poorer than us.’ So the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) smiled until his molar teeth became visible and said, ‘Take it and feed it to your family.’ [The Hadeeth is established with various wordings. Saheeh al-Bukharee (11/516), Saheeh Muslim (no. 1/11) Abu Dawood (no. 2390), at-Tirmidhee (no. 724), Ibn Majah (no. 1671) and others]
Is Kaffarah Binding Upon the Woman? “…The wife must also offer expiation for having intercourse if she willingly went along with her husband in that. But if she was forced then she does not have to do anything” [See, Fatawa al-Lajnah, (10/320)]
Only Sexual Intercourse in the State of Fasting Requires al-Qadaa and al-Kaffarah
Sexual intercourse is the most serious and the most sinful of the things that invalidate the fast. Whoever deliberately has intercourse during the day in Ramadaan with his or her own free will, in which the two parts meet, and penetratration occurs, has invalidated his fast, regardless of whether ejaculation takes place or not. Whoever commits such a sin has to repent, complete that day (i.e., not eat or drink until sunset), perform al-Qadaa and al-Kaffarah.
Ibn al-Qayyim writes in Zaadul-Ma’aad (2/60), “The Qur’aan shows that sexual intercourse breaks the fast, just like eating and drinking – no disagreement is known concerning this.”
Ash-Shawkaanee said in ad-Daraariyyu-Mudiyyah (2/22), “There is no disagreement that sexual intercourse breaks the fast if it is done deliberately, however, if it is done due to forgetfulness then some scholars make it the same as one who eats or drinks forgetfully (i.e., nothing is binding upon the person).”
Permission to Refrain from Fasting and pay al-Fidya only Meaning of al-Fidya and its Rulings:
Al-Fidya is to abstain from fasting or break one’s fast in Ramadaan, due to legal excuse, and feed a poor person for each day (either lunch or supper) on the average scale of that which one feeds his own family.
One can either feed a poor person for each day individually or gather poor people according to the number of days that require al-Fidya and feed them all at once. [See, Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah (10/198)]
Or one may give each poor Saa’ (i.e. half kg and ten gm) of good wheat and it is better to offer it with some meat and oil. Al-Fidya should be offered in Ramadan and not before that.
People who are Granted the Permission to Refrain from Fasting and Offer al-Fidya Only:
Old men and women, who are incapable of observing fasts in Ramadaan, may recompense for it by offering al-Fidya. Abdullah Ibn Abbas (radhi allahu anhu) narrates, “Old people are allowed to refrain from fasting. But for every missed fast, one should feed the poor and he is not obliged to make al-Qadha.” [Daraqutni and al-Hakim]
A sick person whose health is not likely to improve, for example, if one is afflicted with the incurable disease of cancer then he should offer al-Fidya.
Old Age which Entitles one to Abstain from Fasting and Pay al-Fidya only
Allamah Abdullah Ibn Jibreen (hafidahullah) replied, “If an old person becomes totally and physically unable to observe the fasting then such a person will become exempted from fasts and he must offer al-Fidya… However, if the old person reaches the age of lack of recognition, then fasting will become un-required from him. Such a person is not even required to pay al-Fidya…. Such a person will become unaccountable for his deeds just like a minor or an insane.” Fatawa on Fasting, Zakaat and Taraweeh. Published by Darussalam
Taken from As-Sunnah Newsletter