The Start of Devation – Historical
The first 5 major deviations of Islam were that of the Khawaarij (many of the modern ‘terrorist’ groups carry their characteristics), Rafidah (Shiah), Qadariyyah (referenced in the first hadith found in Sahih Muslim), Murji’ah, and the Mu’tazilah (rationalists).
Three of the main people who were the figureheads of the deviant groups are, Wasil bin Ataa (d. 131AH), Ja’d bin Dirham (d. 110AH), and Jahm bin Safwan (d. 124AH). All 3 of these people were from Iraq.
Wasil is the main founder of the Mu’tazilah thought, and claimed that a faasiq (sinner) is not a believer or disbeliever, but in a ‘place between two places’ i.e. manzilah bayna manzilatayn.
Ja’d bin Dirham was the first person to claim that the Quran was created. He was also severely rebuked by Wahb ibn Munabbih for his questions regarding Allah’s Names and Attributes. Ja’d had only one student, Jahm bin Safwan.
Jahm was the first person to openly reject the Quran. He said emaan was to simply know that Allah existed (Iblees would be a mu’min under this definition). He also denied that Allah is above us, and said He is all around us like the air (a’udhubillah).
The most amazing aspect of this history though, is the following ‘chain’ of teachers of Jahm bin Safwan.
Jahm was a student of Ja’d, who was a student of Bayyan bin Sam’aan. Bayyan bin Sam’aan was actually one of the original figureheads of a Rafidi mujassima sect. He claimed that Allah had a body like a man, and that on Qiyamah it would all be destroyed except the face.
Bayyan was a student of Talut, a Jew who claimed the Tawrah was created. Talut, was a student of LABID BIN A’SAM, the one who tried to poison the Prophet(saw).
So you see the whole chain, Labid -> Talut -> Bayyan -> Ja’d -> Jahm.
Wasil bin Ataa was greatly influenced by some teachings of Jahm. Among the teachings that became characteristic of the Mu’tazilahs was that they denied alll Divine Attributes and claimed that the Names were meaningless (an important point to keep in mind when we get to tafweed). They claimed that man created his own actions (a belief of the Qadariyyah), and they were the primary group that studied philosophy and tried to incorporate it into Islam. Of Wasil’s well known students was Amr bin Ubayd (d. 143AH), and of the famous Mu’tazilahs after them was al-Jubba’i (d. 301AH). Al-Jubba’i is important because he married a woman who had a son from a previous marriage. That son was none other than Abul-Hasan al-Ash’ari.
Posted on November 1, 2013, in I - Introduction to Asmaa wa Sifaat – The Names and Attributes of Allah Intro, IV - The Start of Devation and tagged The Start Of deviation. Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.