E – Istawaa (Rise over) 3.Proofs from the Sahabah and Four Madhhabs
Allah is Above the Throne – From Sahabah and the 4 Madhhabs
- In his speech subsequent to the death of the Prophet(SAW)Abu Bakr as-Saddiq said: “He who was worshipping Muhammad (SAW)let him know that) Muhammad (SAW)is dead, and he who was worshipping Allah, (let him know that) Allah is above the heaven Ever-Living, never dies’” (Bukhari).
- Imaam adh-Dhahabee (rh) narrates from Ibn Abbaas (ra), “Before creating the creation, Allah was above his Throne. Then he created the Pen, and it wrote everything that would happen up until the Day of Judgement” (Bayhaqi in ‘Asmaa Was-Sifaat).
The Four Madhaahib (Sunni Schools of Legal Jurisprudence)
- Imaam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (rh) was asked, ‘Allah is above the seventh heaven, above His Throne, distinct from his creation, and His Power and Knowledge are in every place?’ And he replied, ‘Yes, above the Throne and His Knowledge is in every place’ (‘Sharh Usul I’tiqaad Ahlus Sunnah’ of al-Laalikaaee (d.414AH)).
- Imaam Maalik (rh) said, “Allah is Above the heaven, and His knowledge is in every place, nothing is hidden from Him.” (‘Sharh Usul I’tiqaad Ahlus Sunnah’ of al-Laalikaaee (d.414AH)).
- Abu Haneefah (rh) said, when asked of his opinion of the one who says, ‘I do not know whether Allah is above the heavens or on the earth.’ – “He has disbelieved, because Allah says, “The Most Merciful rose above the Throne,” and His Throne is above His seven heavens.’ He was then asked , ‘what if he said that Allah is above His Throne but he does not know whether the Throne is in the heavens or on the earth?’ He said, ‘He has disbelieved, because He has denied that He is above the heavens, And whosoever denied that He is above the heavens has disbelieved.” (‘Sharh Usul I’tiqaad Ahlus Sunnah’ of al-Laalikaaee (d.414AH), ‘al-Uluww’ of adh- Dhahabee, also ‘Sharh Aqueedah at-Tahaawiyyah’ of ibn Abee al-Izz al-Hanafee).
- Abu Haneefah said, “And Allah the Exalted is called upon upwards, and not downwards, because downwards is not a quality of Ruboobiyyah (Lordship) and Uloohiyyah (Divinity) in anything” (al-Fiqh ul-Asbat).
- A woman asked Abu Haneefah, “Where is your Lord whom you worship” So he said, “Verily Allah the Exalted is above the sky (fis-samaa`), not in the earth.” So a man said to him, `Have you seen the statement of Allah the Exalted, “And He is with you.” (57:4) He said, “He is as you are when you write to a man, `Verily I am with you,’ whilst you are absent from him” (al-Asmaa was-Sifaat).
- And Aboo Nu’aym relates from Ja’far Ibn ‘Abdullaah who said, `We were with Maalik Ibn Anas, so a man came, so he said, “O Abaa ‘Abdullaah, “The Most Merciful has ascended above His Throne,” (20:5) How has He ascended?’ So anger came over Maalik, such that no affair like this had ever caused to come over him. So he looked towards the earth and scratched with his cane in his hand, until he raised his hand and wiped the sweat from his forehead, tossed the cane aside, and said, ‘The modality (kayf of it cannot be comprehended by the intellect, and al-istiwaa’ (ascent) is not unknown, and having faith in it is obligatory, and the question concerning it is an innovation. And I think that you are a person of innovation,’ and he commanded him to leave.” Ibn Hajar said in Fathul Baaree (commentary of Sahih al-Bukhari) (13/406- 407) that its isnaad (chain of narrators) is hasan (good). And it was authenticated by adh-Dhahabee in al-Uluww (p. 103).