G – Nuzool (Descent)
Nuzool is one of the most controversial attributes for the people of kalam. The basis of it is a hadith which has been narrated by 39 Sahabah, and is recorded in practically every book of hadith (most notably Bukhari and Muslim).
The following is one of the narrations of it,
Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Our Lord, the Blessed and the Exalted, descends every night to the lowest heaven when one-third of the latter part of the night is left, and says: Who supplicates Me so that I may answer him? Who asks Me so that I may give to him? Who asks Me forgiveness so that I may forgive him? [Muslim]
This hadith is explicit and nothing can be understood from it except the fact that indeed it is Allah(swt) who descends and asks who is asking of HIM so that HE may forgive us.
Some of the mutakallimoon tried to argue that this means His Mercy descends and not Him. The response to this is that aside from the fact that this is ta’wil, the hadith mentions “Allah Tabaraku wa Ta’aala descends” so how could it make sense that “His Mercy the Exalted and Most High” descends?
There is an ijmaa’ of the early scholars on this issue as well. Fudayl ibn Iyaad (d. 187AH) said that if someone says I do not believe in a Lord that descends, to say I believe in a Lord that does as He wills.
This hadith as mentioned, is mutawaatir, and has hundreds of chains of narration. See again the contradiction of the people who say they will only take mutawaatir narrations in Aqeedah, and then reject this narration.
Another argument they employ is to use logic and say that it is always the last third of the night somewhere, so is Allah constantly descending? ibn Taymiyyah responded to this by saying that this is a perfect example of the methodology of the people of kalam. Time and space are both created, so how can they try to confine the Creator who is far above time and space to these restrictions?