Category Archives: II – Ruboobiyyah Alone is not Sufficient

a – Mushrikoon Believed in Allah as their Rabb
b – Excuse of the Jahiliyyah Arabs in their Worship
c – Mushrikoon Believed in Allah but still Committed Shirk
d – Excuse of Jahili Arabis in not Accepting Islam
e – Jahili Arabs Talbiyyah During Hajj
f – Ruboobiyyah Necessitates Uloohiyyah
g -Ruboobiyyah Necessitates Uloohiyyah (Salih al-Fawzan)

Ruboobiyyah Necessitates Uloohiyyah (Salih al-Fawzan)

Tawheed ar-Rububiyah Necessitates Tawheed al-Uluhiyah “ Saleh al-Fawzaan”

The title of the chapter means that he, who declares Tawheed ar-Rububiyah and affirms that there is no Creator, Provider or Administrator of the Universe except Allah – then he is required to proclaim that none deserves all forms of worship except Allah, which is known as Tawheed al-Uluhiyah.

Uluhiyah means, ‘worship’, and the meaning of ilah is, ‘ma’bood’ (one who is worshiped). So, none is to be invoked and sought help from except Allah, none is to be relied upon except Allah, none is to be offered sacrifices and avowed to except Allah and no worship is performed except to Allah alone.

Tawheed ar-Rububiyah is a proof of Tawheed al-Uluhiyah, and this is why Allah has mainly used Tawheed ar-Rububiyah as a proof against the deniers of Tawheed, as He says, ‘O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allah), Who created you and those who were before you so that you may become pious. Who has made the earth a resting place for you, and the sky as a canopy, and sent down water (rain) from the sky and brought forth therewith fruits as a provision for you. Then do not set up rivals unto Allah (in worship) while you know (that He Alone has the right to be worshiped).’ [Soorah al-Baqarah (3):21-22]

Thus, he ordered them with Tawheed al-Uluhiyah, which is His worship, and presented as a proof – Tawheed ar-Rububiyah, which is that He created the people of the earlier times and the later, He created the sky and the earth and all that is between them, the blowing of the wind, sending down of the rain, the growing of the plants, the production of fruits which is the provision of the slaves. So, it is not befitting for them to associate partners, whom they know that they have not done any of the above or anything else besides that.

So, the natural instinct is to affirm Tawheed al-Uluhiyah which is proved by Tawheed ar-Rububiyah, because every person clings to the origin of his creation, and the source of his benefit and harm, he then turns to the means which bring him closer to Him, please Him and strengthen the bond between them. Thus, Tawheed ar-Rububiyah is a door to Tawheed al-Uluhiyah, this is why Allah used it as a proof against the Mushrikeen (those who associate partner with Allah), ‘Say, ‘Whose is the earth and whosoever is therein? If you know!’ They will say, ‘It is Allah’s!’ Say, ‘Will you not then remember?’ Say, ‘Who is (the) Lord of the seven heavens, and (the) Lord of the Great Throne?’ They will say, ‘Allah.’ Say, ‘Will you not then fear Allah.’ Say, ‘In Whose Hand is the sovereignty of everything (i.e. treasures of each and everything)? And He protects (all), while against Whom there is no protector, if you know.’ They will say, ‘(All that belongs) to Allah.’ Say, ‘How then are you deceived and turn away from the truth?’ [Soorah al-Mu’minoon (23): 84]

˜Such is Allah, your Lord! La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshiped but He), the Creator of all things. So worship Him (Alone).’ [Soorah al-An’aam (6): 102]

So, He used His Oneness in Rububiyah as a proof to establish that He alone deserves to be worshiped, and Tawheed al-Uluhiyah is the purpose behind the creation of the universe, He says, ‘And I (Allah) created not the jinn and humans except that they should ya’budoon (worship) Me.’ [Soorah Adh-Dhariyat (51): 56] The meaning of, ‘ya’budoon’ is, ‘single Me out in worship.’

The slave cannot be a muwahhid (one who believes in Tawheed in the correct manner) by affirming Tawheed ar-Rububiyah alone, until he declares Tawheed al-Uluhiyah and establishes it. Otherwise, even the Mushrikeen used to proclaim Allah’s Oneness in Rububiyah but it did not qualify them to enter Islam. The Messenger of Allah (saw) fought them, while they were declaring that Allah is the Creator and Provider, the One, Who gives life and death as Allah says, ‘And if you ask them who created them, they will surely say, ‘Allah.” [Soorah az-Zukhruf (43): 87]

‘And indeed if you ask them, ‘Who has created the heavens and the earth?’ They will surely say, ‘The All-Mighty, the All-Knower created them.’ [Soorah az-Zukhruf (43): 9]

‘Say, ‘Who provides for you from the sky and from the earth? Or who owns hearing and sight? And who brings out the living from the dead and brings out the dead from the living? And who disposes the affairs?’ They will say, ‘Allah.’ [Soorah Yunus (10): 31]

Similar verses can be found in plenty in the Qur’aan. He, who claims that Tawheed is to affirm the Existence of Allah or declare that Allah is the Creator and the One, Who disposes the affairs of the Universe, and restricts himself to this definition – then he does not know the reality of Tawheed to which the Messenger called. Because he has halted at the affair, which necessitates (i.e., Tawheed ar-Rubibiyah), and he has abandoned what it necessitates (i.e., Tawheed al-Uluhiyah) or he has stopped at the proof and abandoned what it proves.

Important points of Tawheed al-Uluhiyah
Absolute perfection from all aspects without any flaw from any angle necessitates that all worship should be for Allah alone; glorification, reverence, hope, supplication, repentance, seeking aid, reliance, seeking help, utmost humbleness with utmost love. All this should be necessarily performed for Allah alone, and this is proved by the intellect, Sharee’ah and the natural instinct. It is against the intellect, Sharee’ah and the natural instinct that any of these should be performed for someone other than Him.

(*translated by Shawana A. Aziz, as-Sunnah vol. 2, issue 8.)

Ruboobiyyah Necessitates Uloohiyyah

How can you admit that Allah is the true Rabb and yet direct acts of worship to other than Him? Once it is established that Allah is the Rabb, the next logical step is to worship Him alone, however many people do not take this step. This is the basic theme of the Quran and this is the message of all the Prophets.

Allah (swt) uses their belief in His Lordship as proof against them in their acts of shirk. He mentions their belief in Him as proof against their worship of others in the following ayaat:

Say (O Muhammad SAW): “Praise and thanks be to Allah, and peace be on His slaves whom He has chosen (for His Message)! Is Allah better, or (all) that you ascribe as partners (to Him)?” (Of course, Allah is Better). Is not He (better than your gods) Who created the heavens and the earth, and sends down for you water (rain) from the sky, whereby We cause to grow wonderful gardens full of beauty and delight? It is not in your ability to cause the growth of their trees. Is there any ilah (god) with Allah? Nay, but they are a people who ascribe equals (to Him)! Is not He (better than your gods) Who has made the earth as a fixed abode, and has placed rivers in its midst, and has placed firm mountains therein, and has set a barrier between the two seas (of salt and sweet water).Is there any ilah (god) with Allah? Nay, but most of them know not. Is not He (better than your gods) Who responds to the distressed one, when he calls Him, and Who removes the evil, and makes you inheritors of the earth, generations after generations. Is there any ilah (god) with Allah? Little is that you remember! Is not He (better than your gods) Who guides you in the darkness of the land and the sea, and Who sends the winds as heralds of glad tidings, going before His Mercy (rain)? Is there any ilah (god) with Allah? High Exalted be Allah above all that they associate as partners (to Him)! Is not He (better than your so-called gods) Who originates creation, and shall thereafter repeat it, and Who provides for you from heaven and earth? Is there any ilah (god) with Allah? Say, “Bring forth your proofs, if you are truthful.” (Naml 27:59-64)

Throughout these verses Ruboobiyyah is linked to Uloohiyyah. Rhetorical questions about Ruboobiyyah then ends it with an ayah of uloohiyyah. So He established their Ruboobiyyah and then challenges their uloohiyyah. There are hundreds of verses where this link is shown.

When reading through the Qur’aan, notice how Allah (swt) often mentions manifestations of His lordship (ruboobiyya) after calling upon people to worship Him alone (uloohiyyah).

O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allah), Who created you and those who were before you so that you may become Al-Muttaqun. (2:21)

Jahili Arabs Talbiyyah for Hajj

Narrated in Sahih Muslim they would say Labbayk Allahuma Labayk and add to it:

و حدثني ‏ ‏عباس بن عبد العظيم العنبري ‏ ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏النضر بن محمد اليمامي ‏ ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏عكرمة يعني ابن عمار ‏ ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏أبو زميل ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏ابن عباس ‏ ‏رضي الله عنهما ‏ ‏قال ‏ ‏ كان المشركون يقولون لبيك لا شريك لك قال فيقول رسول الله

‏    ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏ويلكم ‏ ‏قد قد ‏ ‏فيقولون إلا شريكا هو لك تملكه وما ملك يقولون هذا وهم يطوفون ‏ بالبيت

Ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with them) reported that the polytheists also pronounced (Talbiya) as: Here I am at The service, there is no associate with Thee. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Woe be upon them, as they also said: But one associate with Thee, you possess mastery over him, but he does not possess mastery (over you). They used to say this and circumambulate the Ka’ba.

Even in this talbiyyah, the ultimate power is being given to Allah, but it was still shirk. This is the same as people who try to justify shirk. They will call out to saints or the Prophet (saw) and say that they are only doing it because Allah gave them power and that the power still goes back to Allah.

In conclusion, it can be said the Jahili Arabs accepted Allah’s Ruboobiyyah, yet they were still amongst the worst of creation.

Mushrikoon Believed in Allah but still Committed Shirk

“And most of them do not believe in Allah without associating others (with Him).” (Yousuf, 12: 106)

The majority of people believed in Allah but still commit shirk. This means the belief alone is not sufficient. Ibn Abbas interpreted this statement to say that their belief in Allah is to say if you ask them who created the mountains they would say Allah, yet they worship other than Him (Tabari). This shows they had some part of  Tawheed but not the entire Tawheed.

Indeed, ayah itself shows that they believed (had Eemaan) but that emaan was mixed with shirk.

One proof of this is the fact that the mushrikoon turned to Allah at times of distress. It shows that they realized their idols were useless in matters of life and death. It also shows the fitrah of mankind is to call out to Allah alone. This is why The Prophet (SAW) also said, “Each child is born in a state of “Fitrah”, then his parents make him a Jew, Christian or a Zoroastrian, the way an animal gives birth to a normal offspring. Have you noticed any that were born mutilated?” (Collected by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim).

“When they ride on a ship, they call upon Allah, being sincerely obedient to Him. But as soon as He saves them to the shore, they associate others (with Him).” (Al-‘Ankaboot :65)

When the Prophet(saw) conquered Mecca, he granted amnesty to and forgave everyone for their transgressions except 6 people who he ordered to be put to death. One of them was Ikrimah ibn Abu Jahl. He realized he would not live when the Muslims came so he ran away to Abysinnia (whis is today Ethiopia). On his way there, on the ship, the ship entered into a storm and the waves tossed them up and down. It was exactly as described in the Quran. The captain of the ship called out to the people to make dua to Allah and sincerely call out to Him because you know your idols will not save you now. Ikrimah said that it struck him then that if his idols were of no use now, then why did they worship them outside of that? So Ikrimah made up his mind to accept Islam and said O Allah if you save me I will put my hand in the hand of the Prophet (saw) and I will find him to be forgiving and merciful.

Excuse of the Jahili Arabs in their Worship

“And they worship, instead of Allah, that which neither harms them nor profits them; and they say, ‘These are our intercessors with Allah.’” (Younus, 10:18)

They are praying to al-Laat so that al-Laat will take it up to Allah. They thought they were too sinful or unworthy of going directly to Allah so they took up intermediaries. The main argument used by those who try to justify shirk in Islam is the exact same as this.

“We worship them only that they may bring us closer to Allah.” (Az-Zumar, 39:3)

Want to establish an indirect relationship with Allah. They think the others are so beloved to Allah, and if they are loved by them, then Allah will love them.

Mushrikoon Believed in Allah as their Rabb

All religions for the most part at least believe in one Supreme being, whether it be “God the Father” or Zeus in Greek mythology. The mushrikoon believed in Allah as a Rabb. This therefore necessitates that Ruboobiyyah alone is not sufficient. Abu Lahab and all of the leaders of Quraysh believed in Allah as a Rabb. Even Iblees believed in Allah as a Rabb.

“[Iblis (Satan)] said: “See? This one whom You have honoured above me, if You give me respite (keep me alive) to the Day of Resurrection, I will surely seize and mislead his offspring (by sending them astray) all but a few!” (17:62)

There are many clear ayaat proving that the Jahiliyyah Arabs believed that Allah created and sustained everything, and was All-Powerful.

“If you ask them, “Who created the heavens and the earth, and put the sun and the moon in your service?”; they will say, “Allah.” Why then did they deviate? Allah is the One who increases the provision for whomever He chooses from among His creatures, and withholds it. Allah is fully aware of all things. And if you ask them Who is it that sends down water from the clouds, then gives life to the earth with it after its death, they will certainly say, Allah. Say: All praise is due to Allah; but most of them do not understand.” (Al-‘Ankaboot, 29:61-63)

“If you asked them who created them, they would say, “Allah.” Why then did they deviate?” (Az-Zukhruf, 43:87)

“Say, ‘To whom belongs the earth and everyone on it, if you know?’ They will say, ‘To Allah.’ Say, ‘Why then do you not take heed?’ Say, ‘Who is the Lord of the seven heavens; the Lord of the great dominion?’ They will say, ‘Allah.’ Say, ‘Why then do you not turn righteous?’ Say, ‘In whose hand is all sovereignty over all things, and He is the only one who can provide help, but needs no help, if you know?’ They will say, ‘Allah.’ Say, ‘Where did you go wrong?’” (Al-Mu’minoon, 84-89)

They have been deluded and misguided even though they accepted Allah as a Rabb.

This shows that the Jahiliyyah Arabs believed in Allah yet committed shirk.

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