Question: There are those who say that the Kuffaar (disbelievers) are our brothers in humanity and not in the religion. Is this true?
Allamah Saaleh bin Fawzaan al-Fawzaan: It is not sufficient with the humanity. One does not speak like that in order to please them or to gain their sympathies. One does not speak like that.
One says that they are our enemies and not that they are our brothers in humanity. One says that they are our enemies. What is the benefit of a human fraternity if they are our enemies in the religion? What does it benefit?
Pharaoh was also a human. Right? Was he also our brother?
We do not say that. [end]
Question :- I have a Christian friend whom I love very much, and he is one of the Christians who are praised in the Qur‘aan. Now he is very sick; does Islam allow me to pray to Allaah to heal him?.
Praise be to Allaah.The belief in al-wala‘ wa‘l-bara‘ (loyalty and friendship vs. disavowal and enmity) is one of the most important basic principles of Islam.
Just as faith increases and decreases, so too people vary in the extent to which they adhere to this important principle, and their adherence to it increases and decreases.
But if this principle is destroyed completely in a person‘s heart and he does not do what it implies, this means that faith has been destroyed entirely as well, and faith is the basis on which he loves the close friends of Allaah and hates His enemies.
This principle is indicated by a number of verses in the Book of Allaah and ahaadeeth from the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). These include the following:
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
’You (O Muhammad) will not find any people who believe in Allaah and the Last Day, making friendship with those who oppose Allaah and His Messenger (Muhammad), even though they were their fathers or their sons or their brothers or their kindred (people). For such He has written Faith in their hearts, and strengthened them with Rooh (proofs, light and true guidance) from Himself. And He will admit them to Gardens (Paradise) under which rivers flow, to dwell therein (forever). Allaah is pleased with them, and they with Him. They are the party of Allaah. Verily, it is the party of Allaah that will be the successful“
’O you who believe! Take not for Awliyaa‘ (protectors or helpers or friends) disbelievers instead of believers. Do you wish to offer Allaah a manifest proof against yourselves?“
’O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as Awliyaa‘ (friends, protectors, helpers), they are but Awliyaa‘ of each other. And if any amongst you takes them (as Awliyaa‘), then surely, he is one of them. Verily, Allaah guides not those people who are the Zaalimoon (polytheists and wrongdoers and unjust)“
’O you who believe! Take not as (your) Bitaanah (advisors, consultants, protectors, helpers, friends) those outside your religion (pagans, Jews, Christians, and hypocrites) since they will not fail to do their best to corrupt you. They desire to harm you severely. Hatred has already appeared from their mouths, but what their breasts conceal is far worse. Indeed We have made plain to you the Ayaat (proofs, evidences, verses) if you understand“
[Aal …Imraan 3:118]
It was narrated that …Aa‘ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said:
The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) set out before Badr and when he was in Harrah al-Wabarah a man caught up with him whose daring and courage were well known, so the companions of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) rejoiced when they saw him. But when he caught up with him, he said to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him): ’I have come to follow you and get booty with you.“ The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to him: ’Will you believe in Allaah and His Messenger?“ He said: ’No.“ He said: ’Then go back, for I will never seek the help of a mushrik.“ Narrated by Muslim, 1817.
The Sahaabah (may Allaah be pleased with them) accused Maalik ibn al-Dakhshan of being a hypocrite because he often kept company with some of the hypocrites and met with them, as is narrated in al-Saheehayn (al-Bukhaari, no. 415; Muslim, no. 33)
There are many such reports, which indicates that it is haraam to take the kaafirs as close friends and to love them. This friendship may take many forms, such as approving of their kufr, mixing with them and being friendly towards them, living with them, taking them as close friends, loving them, preferring them to the believers, referring to their laws for judgement and so on.
From the above, you will see that loving a kaafir is a serious matter, because it goes against one of the most important principles of Tawheed, which is loving and being loyal towards the believers, and disavowing and rejecting the disbelievers.
With regard to your saying that this kaafir is one of the Christians whom Allaah praises in the Qur‘aan, the answer to that is that those whom Allaah praised in His Book are a specific type with certain characteristics which Allaah describes after the verse in which He praises them. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
’Verily, you will find the strongest among men in enmity to the believers (Muslims) the Jews and those who are Al-Mushrikoon, and you will find the nearest in love to the believers (Muslims) those who say: …We are Christians.‘“
Then He says (interpretation of the meaning):
’That is because amongst them are priests and monks, and they are not proud.
And when they (who call themselves Christians) listen to what has been sent down to the Messenger (Muhammad), you see their eyes overflowing with tears because of the truth they have recognized. They say: …Our Lord! We believe; so write us down among the witnesses.
84. …And why should we not believe in Allaah and in that which has come to us of the truth (Islamic Monotheism)? And we wish that our Lord will admit us (in Paradise on the Day of Resurrection) along with the righteous people (Prophet Muhammad and his Companions).‘
85. So because of what they said, Allaah rewarded them Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise), they will abide therein forever. Such is the reward of Al-Muhsinoon (the good‑doers).
86. But those who disbelieved and belied Our Ayaat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.), they shall be the dwellers of the (Hell) Fire“
So the rest of this passage makes it clear that what is meant are those who believed in Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and were affected by listening to the Qur‘aan and its call.
The scholar …Abd al-Rahmaan al-Sa‘di said, commenting on this verse: Here Allaah describes which of the two groups is closer to the Muslims and to friendship them, and which group is furthest away :
’Verily, you will find the strongest among men in enmity to the believers (Muslims) the Jews and those who are Al-Mushrikoon“.
These two groups are the most hostile towards Islam and the Muslims, and the ones who try hardest to cause them harm, because of their great hatred towards them and because of their envy, stubbornness and kufr.
’and you will find the nearest in love to the believers (Muslims) those who say: …We are Christians‘“
Allaah mentions a number of reasons for that, such as:
Among them are priests and monks, i.e., scholars, ascetics and worshippers in hermitages far away. Knowledge accompanied by asceticism, and worship, are things that soften the heart and take away harshness, hence you do not find in them the harshness of the Jews and mushrikeen.
They are not proud, i.e., there is no arrogance in them or refusal to submit to the truth. This is why they are close to the Muslims and to friendship with them, because one who is humble is closer to goodness than one who is arrogant.
When they listen to that which has been revealed to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), that has an effect on their hearts and they submit to what they believe in. Hence they believed and said: ’Our Lord! We believe; so write us down among the witnesses“ – namely the ummah of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) who bear witness to the Oneness of Allaah and to the soundness of the Message brought by the Messengers, and they bear witness for and against the former nations.
These verses were revealed concerning the Christians who believed in Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) such as the Negus (ruler of Abyssinia) and others who believed.
There are still some among them who choose the religion of Islam and who realize that what they used to follow is false. They are closer to Islam than the Jews and mushrikeen.
Tafseer al-Sa‘di, 1/511
With regard to praying for kaafirs, this falls into two categories:
1 – Praying for a kaafir to be guided to Islam and so on. This is permissible. It was narrated from Ibn …Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ’O Allaah, support Islam with the man who is more beloved to You: Abu Jahl or …Umar ibn al-Khattaab.“ Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 3681; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani. Here he was praying for one of them to be guided.
2 – Praying for him to be forgiven and so on. This is forbidden according to scholarly consensus.
Al-Nawawi said: With regard to offering the funeral prayer for a kaafir and praying for forgiveness for him, this is haraam according to the text of the Qur‘aan and scholarly consensus.
It says in Tuhfat al-Muhtaaj: It is haraam to pray for a kaafir and for one whose Islam is in doubt with regard to matters of the Hereafter, even if that is one of his parents. (3/141).
With regard to praying for him to be healed from sickness, this is permissible if it serves a purpose, such as if one hopes that he will become Muslim and that his heart will be softened and so on.
This is indicated by the hadeeth of the Sahaabi who recited ruqyah for the chief of a tribe who had been stung by a scorpion. Praying for healing comes under the same heading as ruqyah.
Indeed it is permissible for you to visit him during this sickness, because when a person is sick his heart is softer and is more likely to accept the truth.
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had a Jewish boy who used to serve him, and he fell sick. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came to visit him; he sat by his head and said to him: ’Become Muslim.“ He looked at his father, who was present, and he (the father) said to him: ’Obey Abu‘l-Qaasim (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).“ So he became Muslim and the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) went out saying, ’Praise be to Allaah Who has saved him from the Fire.“ Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1356.
Ibn Hajar said: This hadeeth indicates that it is permissible to employ a mushrik as a servant and to visit him if he falls sick, and this is a form of kind treatment.
But praying for a kaafir to be healed does not mean that one has befriended him or loves him or prefers him to a believer, as explained above. And Allaah knows best.
Shaykh Ibn …Uthaymeen was asked about the ruling on taking kaafirs as friends. He replied:
Taking kaafirs as friends and supporters is haraam according to the Holy Qur‘aan. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
’You (O Muhammad) will not find any people who believe in Allaah and the Last Day, making friendship with those who oppose Allaah and His Messenger“
’O you who believe! Take not as Awliyaa‘ (protectors and helpers) those who take your religion as a mockery and fun from among those who received the Scripture (Jews and Christians) before you, and nor from among the disbelievers; and fear Allaah if you indeed are true believers“
’O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as Awliyaa‘ (friends, protectors, helpers), they are but Awliyaa‘ of each other. And if any amongst you takes them (as Awliyaa‘), then surely, he is one of them. Verily, Allaah guides not those people who are the Zaalimoon (polytheists and wrongdoers and unjust)“
Allaah tells us that if the believers are not friends and supporters of one another, and the disbelievers are not friends and supporters of one another, and the two are not distinct from one another, then there will be fitnah (tribulation) and a great deal of corruption on earth.
A believer can never trust a nonbeliever no matter how much friendship and sincerity he shows. Allaah says concerning them (interpretation of the meaning):
’They wish that you reject Faith, as they have rejected (Faith), and thus that you all become equal (like one another)“
And Allaah said to His Prophet (interpretation of the meaning):
’Never will the Jews nor the Christians be pleased with you (O Muhammad) till you follow their religion“
So the believer must depend upon Allaah and apply His laws, and not let the blame of any blamer bother him or fear his enemies. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
’It is only Shaytaan (Satan) that suggests to you the fear of his Awliyaa‘ [supporters and friends (polytheists, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allaah and in His Messenger, Muhammad)]; so fear them not, but fear Me, if you are (true) believers“
[Aal …Imraan 3:175]
’And you see those in whose hearts there is a disease (of hypocrisy), they hurry to their friendship, saying: ’We fear lest some misfortune of a disaster may befall us.“ Perhaps Allaah may bring a victory or a decision according to His Will. Then they will become regretful for what they have been keeping as a secret in themselves“
’O you who believe (in Allaah‘s Oneness and in His Messenger Muhammad)! Verily, the Mushrikoon (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allaah, and in the Message of Muhammad) are Najasun (impure). So let them not come near Al‑Masjid Al-Haraam (at Makkah) after this year; and if you fear poverty, Allaah will enrich you if He wills, out of His Bounty. Surely, Allaah is All-Knowing, All-Wise“
See Majmoo‘ Fataawa al-Shaykh Ibn …Uthaymeen, 3/31-46; al-Wala‘ wa‘l-Bara‘ fi‘l-Islam, p. 352.
Q: Praise be to Allah, we are Muslims, but we have a Christian brother. Is it permissible to eat and drink with him? Please advise us. May Allah reward you with the best!
The Muslim is the brother of the Muslim, not the Kafir. Even if they are biological brothers, yet, they are not brothers in religion whether this brother is a Jew, Christian, Magian, Communist, Qadiani or Pagan. The Kafirs (disbelievers) are not our brothers; rather, we have hostility and hatred between us and them, though we should treat them kindly.
If they are poor and not belligerent; there is nothing wrong with being kind to them if they are Dhimmy (protected non-Muslim living under Islamic rule) or Musta’minin (non-Muslims with a peace agreement permitting them to enter and stay temporarily in a Muslim country). It is permissible to treat them kindly if they are poor and call them to Islam.
Still, they are neither our brothers nor bosom friends, as we should hate them for the sake of Allah (Exalted be He) till they are guided. As previously mentioned, we should be kind to them, call them to the way of Allah (Exalted be He) and ask Him to grant them guidance, for all this is required.
On the other hand, if they are engaged in warfare with us, we should hate them for the sake of Allah, fight them, boycott them and never help them in anyway. Supporting them against Muslims is an act of Kufr (disbelief) and apostasy. Therefore, you should not take this Christian man as a friend or even eat with him. But, if it happened and you became obliged to be in his companionship as a housemate or guest, there is nothing wrong with sharing your food with him, provided that you do not make him a bosom friend or helper.
Rather, you should consider him as an enemy and hate him for the sake of Allah until he follows guidance. Again, you can eat with him if necessary or in case he is your guest or housemate without seeking his friendship or companionship. This is to avoid being drawn to his evil or becoming negligent in that which Allah (Exalted be He) has imposed on you as regards him. Allah is the One to be sought for help.
Fatwas of Nur `Ala Al-Darb>Volume 1>Chapter on `Aqidah>Chapter on Al-Wala’ wal-Bara’>Ruling on being kind to the Dhimmy and Musta’man
Q)We want to know in detail how Muslims regard non-Muslims, and how they should deal with them according to Islamic sharee‘ah?
A) Praise be to Allah.
- Islam is the religion of mercy and justice.
- Muslims are commanded to call non-Muslims to Islam with wisdom and beautiful preaching and by debating in a manner that is better. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):
’And argue not with the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), unless it be in (a way) that is better (with good words and in good manner, inviting them to Islamic Monotheism with His Verses), except with such of them as do wrong“ [al-…Ankaboot 29:46]
- Allah does not accept any religion other than Islam. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
’And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers“ [Aal …Imraan 3:85]
- The Muslims should give the kaafirs the opportunity to hear the words of Allah. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):
’And if anyone of the Mushrikoon (polytheists, idolaters, pagans, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allaah) seeks your protection then grant him protection so that he may hear the Word of Allaah (the Qur‘aan) and then escort him to where he can be secure“ [al-Tawbah 9:6]
- The Muslims should differentiate between different kinds of kaafirs in their dealings with them. They should make peace with those who make peace, and wage war against those who wage war, and wage jihad against those who stand in the way of spreading the message of Islam and causing it to prevail of earth.
- With regard to matters of love and hate in the heart, the Muslims‘ attitude towards non-Muslims is based on the latter‘s attitude towards Allah. If they worship Allah and do not associate anything in worship with Him, then they love them. If they associate others in worship with Him, or disbelieve in Him, or worship others alongside Him, or are hostile towards His religion and hate the truth, then it is obligatory to hate them in our hearts.
- Hating them in our hearts does not mean that we should oppress or mistreat them under any circumstances, because Allah said to His Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), describing what his attitude should be towards the People of the Book: even though he is a Muslim and they are following Judaism or Christianity.
’and I am commanded to do justice among you. Allaah is our Lord and your Lord. For us our deeds and for you your deeds“ [al-Shoora 42:15 – interpretation of the meaning]
- The Muslims believe that it is not permissible, under any circumstances whatsoever, for a Muslim to mistreat a non-Muslim who is not hostile towards Islam; so the Muslim should not commit aggression against him, or frighten him, or terrorize him, or steal his wealth, or embezzle him, or deprive him of his rights, or deny him his trust, or deny him his wages, or withhold from him the price of his goods when buying from him or withhold the profits of a partnership if he is in a business partnership with him.
- The Muslims believe that it is obligatory upon the Muslims to honor treaties or agreements made with a non-Muslim party. If a Muslim has agreed to their conditions when seeking permission to enter their country (i.e., a visa) and has promised to adhere to that, then it is not permissible for him to commit mischief in their land, to betray anyone, to steal, to kill or to do any destructive action, and so on.
- The Muslims believe that in the case of non-Muslims who wage war against them and drive them out of their homes, or help others to do so, it is permissible for Muslims to shed the blood of these non-Muslims and confiscate their wealth.
- The Muslims believe that it is permissible for a Muslim to treat kindly those non-Muslims who are not hostile, whether by offering financial help, feeding the hungry, giving them loans if needed or interceding with regard to permissible matters, or speaking kindly to them or returning their greetings, and so on. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
’Allah does not forbid you to deal justly and kindly with those who fought not against you on account of religion nor drove you out of your homes. Verily, Allah loves those who deal with equity“ [al-Mumtahanah 60:8]
- There is no reason why Muslims should not cooperate with non-Muslims with regard to establishing truth and combating falsehood, to support the oppressed and ward off danger from mankind, such as cooperating to fight pollution or to protect the environment, or to combat epidemic diseases and so on.
- The Muslims believe that there are differences between Muslims and non-Muslims in specific rulings such as diyah (blood money), inheritance, marriage, guardianship in marriage, entering Makkah etc., as is explained in the books of Islamic fiqh (jurisprudence). This is based on the commands of Allah and His Messenger Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). We cannot regard as equal one who believes in Allah alone with no partner or associate and one who disbelieves in Allah or one who disbelieves in Allah and joins others in worship with Him, or who turns away from the true religion.
- Muslims are commanded to call people to Allah in all the Muslim countries and other lands. They must convey the true religion of Allah to the world and build mosques in all parts of the world, and send daa‘iyahs (callers) to non-Muslim countries and invite their leaders to enter the religion of Allaah.
- The Muslims believe that other people who are following other religions are not following any true religion, so the Muslims do not allow others to send missionaries to build churches in Muslim countries. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):
’Is then he who is a believer like him who is a Faasiq (disbeliever and disobedient to Allaah)? Not equal are they“ [al-Sajdah 32:18]
Whoever thinks that Islam is equal to other religions is making a serious mistake. But the Muslim scholars have opened the door to debate with non-Muslims and allow the opportunity to discuss with and listen to non-Muslims and explain the truth to them.
Finally, Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):
’Say (O Muhammad): O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians): Come to a word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but Allah (Alone), and that we associate no partners with Him, and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allah.‘ Then, if they turn away, say: …Bear witness that we are Muslims‘“ [Aal …Imraan 3:64]
’And had the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) believed, it would have been better for them“ [Aal …Imraan 3:110].
Islam and its relation to other religions – A commentary on an article by Shaykh Jad Al-Haq, the Grand Shaykh of Al-Azhar by Allamah Ibn Baaz (rahimahullah)
A commentary on an article by Shaykh Jad Al-Haq, the Grand Shaykh of Al-Azhar entitled, “Islam and its relation to other religions”
This letter is from `Abdul-`Aziz ibn `Abdullah ibn Baz to the honorable brother His Eminence Shaykh Jad Al-Haq `Ali Jad Al-Haq the grand Shaykh of Al-Azhar, may Allah grant him success!
As-salamu `alaykum warahmatullah wabarakatuh (May Allah’s Peace, Mercy, and Blessings be upon you!)
I have read your article which was published by Al-Jazirah newspaper issued on Friday 16/5/1415 A.H. entitled, “Islam and the others religions”. Following are extracts from the article:
Allah has honored him and preferred him to those whom He has created. This is clear in Allah’s saying in Surah Al-Isra’, And indeed We have honoured the Children of Adam, and We have carried them on land and sea, and have provided them with At-Tayyib�t (lawful good things), and have preferred them above many of those whom We have created with a marked preferment.
Honoring man and giving him preference over other creatures is a lofty bond that links Muslims to other humans.
Allah (Exalted be He) also says in Surah Al-Hujurat: O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honourable of you with All�h is that (believer) who has At-Taqw� [i.e. he is one of the Muttaq�n (the pious. See V.2:2)]. Verily, All�h is All-Knowing, All-Aware.
This indicates that it is Wajib (obligatory) upon them to enrich their relations of amicability and affection with the followers of the other religions and the non-Islamic Countries due to this brotherhood. This is the meaning of the previously mentioned Ayah…” End quote
I was very sad at reading this as their intended meaning contradicts the teachings of the Qur’an and the Hadith, so I thought of drawing Your Eminence’s attention to this matter.
Your Eminence knows that Allah (Glorified be He) ordered the believers to hate and show hostility to the Kuffar (disbelievers), not to show affection or to take them as friends.
Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) says, O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as Auliy�‘ (friends, protectors, helpers), they are but Auliy�‘ of each other. And if any amongst you takes them (as Auliy�‘), then surely he is one of them. Verily, All�h guides not those people who are the Z�lim�n (polytheists and wrong-doers and unjust).
In Surah Al-`Imran, Allah (Glorified be He) says, O you who believe! Take not as (your) Bit�nah (advisors, consultants, protectors, helpers, friends) those outside your religion (pagans, Jews, Christians, and hypocrites) since they will not fail to do their best to corrupt you. They desire to harm you severely. Hatred has already appeared from their mouths, but what their breasts conceal is far worse. Indeed We have made plain to you the Ay�t (proofs, evidence, verses) if you understand.
In Surah Al-Mumtahanah, Allah (Glorified be He), O you who believe! Take not My enemies and your enemies (i.e. disbelievers and polytheists) as friends, showing affection towards them, while they have disbelieved in what has come to you of the truth (i.e. Isl�mic Monotheism, this Qur‘�n, and Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم), and have driven out the Messenger (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) and yourselves (from your homeland) because you believe in All�h your Lord! If you have come forth to strive in My Cause and to seek My Good Pleasure, (then take not these disbelievers and polytheists as your friends). You show friendship to them in secret, while I am All-Aware of what you conceal and what you reveal. And whosoever of you (Muslims) does that, then indeed he has gone (far) astray from the Straight Path.Should they gain the upper hand over you, they would behave to you as enemies, and stretch forth their hands and their tongues against you with evil, and they desire that you should disbelieve.Neither your relatives nor your children will benefit you on the Day of Resurrection (against All�h). He will judge between you. And All�h is the All-Seer of what you do.Indeed there has been an excellent example for you in Ibr�h�m (Abraham) and those with him, when they said to their people: “Verily, we are free from you and whatever you worship besides All�h: we have rejected you, and there has started between us and you hostility and hatred for ever until you believe in All�h Alone”
In Surah Al-Mujadalah, Allah (Glorified be He) says, You (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) will not find any people who believe in All�h and the Last Day, making friendship with those who oppose All�h and His Messenger (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم), even though they were their fathers or their sons or their brothers or their kindred (people).
The previously mentioned Ayahs (Qur’anic verses) as well as the other Ayahs to the same effect indicate that it is Wajib to hate, antagonize, and sever intimate relations with disbelievers until they believe in Allah alone.
The Ayah in Surah Al-Hujurat does not indicate showing love and affection to the Kuffar, it shows that Allah made Banu Adam (human beings) different nations and tribes so that they would know each other and be able to conduct permissible transactions between them such as sale, purchase, exchange of ambassadors, collecting Jizyah (poll tax required from non-Muslims living in an Islamic state) from the Jews, the Christians, the Magi, etc. and other kinds of transactions which do not require showing affection or love.
Giving preference to Banu Adam does not indicate the permissibility of establishing relations based on love and affection between a Muslim and a disbeliever. It shows that Allah has preferred Banu Adam to those whom He has created.
It is not permissible to conclude from these two Ayahs anything that contradicts the previously mentioned Muh-kamat (clearly decided Qur‘anic verses, mostly concerning legal rulings) Ayahs as well as the other Ayahs that show the obligation of hating the disbelievers for Allah’s Sake or taking them as enemies and the prohibition of showing affection and befriending them. This is for the great difference in religion between Muslims and the disbelievers.
It is obligatory upon scholars to explain the Qur’an in a way that shows the harmony of its Ayahs and to use the Muh-kamat Ayahs in explaining the Mutashabihat (Qur‘anic verses whose meanings are not clear or not completely agreed upon).
Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) says, It is He Who has sent down to you (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) the Book (this Qur‘�n). In it are Verses that are entirely clear, they are the foundations of the Book; and others not entirely clear. So as for those in whose hearts there is a deviation (from the truth) they follow that which is not entirely clear thereof, seeking Al-Fitnah (polytheism and trials), and seeking for its hidden meanings
The ruling in these previously mentioned Muhkamat Ayahs is clear and the two Ayahs of Surah Al-Hujurat do not contradict this ruling.
It is not hidden to your Eminence that this ruling contradicts the clear texts which invite the People of the Book and others to believe in Allah and His Messenger and call those who do not respond as Kafir.
It is well known that all the previous Shari`ahs (Divine laws) of the prophets were abrogated by the Shari`ah of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Therefore, it is not permissible for anyone to act according to any Shari`ah other than that of the Qur’an and the authentic Sunnah.
Allah (Glorified be He) says, Say: “Obey All�h and obey the Messenger, but if you turn away, he (Messenger Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) is only responsible for the duty placed on him (i.e. to convey All�h‘s Message) and you for that placed on you. If you obey him, you shall be on the right guidance. The Messenger‘s duty is only to convey (the message) in a clear way (i.e. to preach in a plain way).”
Allah (Exalted be He) also says: So those who believe in him (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم), honour him, help him, and follow the light (the Qur‘�n) which has been sent down with him, it is they who will be successful.
Allah (may He be Praised) says, Say (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم): “O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of All�h – to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth. L� il�ha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He). It is He Who gives life and causes death. So believe in All�h and His Messenger (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم), the Prophet who can neither read nor write (i.e. Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم), who believes in All�h and His Words [(this Qur‘�n), the Taur�t (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel) and also All�h‘s Word: “Be!” – and he was, i.e. …Is� (Jesus) son of Maryam (Mary), عليهما السلام], and follow him so that you may be guided.”
Allah (Exalted be He) also says: Surely, disbelievers are those who said: ’All�h is the third of the three (in a Trinity).“ But there is no Il�h (god) (none who has the right to be worshipped) but One Il�h (God – All�h).
Allah described the Jews and the Christians in Surah Al-Tawbah saying, They (Jews and Christians) took their rabbis and their monks to be their lords besides All�h, and (they also took as their Lord) Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary), while they (Jews and Christians) were commanded [in the Taur�t (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)] to worship none but One Il�h (God – All�h) L� il�ha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He). Praise and glory be to Him (far above is He) from having the partners they associate (with Him).” to the end of the following two Ayahs.
There are many other Ayahs that stress the same meaning. They all indicate the disbelief of the Jews and the Christians as they took their rabbis and monks as lords instead of Allah, the saying of the Jews that `Uzair (Ezra) is the son of Allah, the saying of the Christians that the Messiah is the son of Allah, their accusation of Muhammad of telling lies, and their disbelief in him except those whom Allah guided to Islam.
It is recorded by Muslim in his Sahih (authentic) book of Hadith that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “By Him in Whose hand the soul of Muhammad is, any Jew or Christian amongst this Ummah (nation) who hears about me, but does not affirm his belief in that with which I have been sent and dies in this state (of disbelief), he shall be one of the inhabitants of Hellfire.”
It is also recorded in the Two Sahih (authentic) Books of Hadith (i.e. Al-Bukhari and Muslim) that the Prophet (peace be upon him) also said, “May Allah curse the Jews and the Christians, for they have taken the graves of their Prophets as places of worship.” There are many Hadiths that indicate the disbelief of the Jews and the Christians and declare their hostility to us.
Allah (Glorified be He) made the food of the People of the Book and their chaste women lawful, however, this does not indicate the permissibility of showing love and affection towards them. This is clear to whoever reflects upon the Ayahs and examines them carefully.
Finally, it is clear to Your Eminence the mistakes mentioned in the article such as:
1- Saying that love and affection is the basic of the relation between Islam and the other religions and peoples.
2- Bearing witness that the Jews and the Christians believe in Allah and that they act according to the Divine message which has the same basics.
I have written this letter to Your Eminence hoping that you would reconsider what you have written with regard to those two points. I hope also that you would check the religious texts and correct them so as to escape blame and guide the Muslim Ummah. In sha‘a-Allah (if Allah wills), this is praiseworthy behavior that shows your strong faith and your preference of the Truth.
I ask Allah with His with His Most Beautiful Names and His Lofty Attributes to guide you, Muslim scholars, and me to know and follow the Truth. I ask him to help us advise His Slaves for His Sake and make us all among those who guide others and are guided by Allah. He is the Most Generous and All-Bountiful!
May Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.
Fatwas of Ibn Baz>Volume 8>A commentary on an article by ShaykhJad AlHaqthe Grand Shaykh of AlAzharentitled Islam and its relation to other religions
Q: 5: Calling Kafirs (disbelievers) to Islam requires having relationships with them in order to pave the way for inviting them to Islam. So, if a Kafir invites me to dine with him and eat lawful food like cheese or fish or have a lawful drink like tea, is it permissible for me to accept the invitation knowing that the dishes or cups might have been used for serving pork or drinking alcohol?
Answer: There are many types of establishing relationships with other people.
Relationships based on mutual affection, love and brotherhood between a Muslim and a Kafir is prohibited. It might render a Muslim as a Kafir.
Allah (Exalted be He) says,
You (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) will not find any people who believe in All�h and the Last Day, making friendship with those who oppose All�h and His Messenger (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم), even though they were their fathers or their sons or their brothers or their kindred (people). For such He has written Faith in their hearts, and strengthened them with R�h (proofs, light and true guidance) from Himself. And He will admit them to Gardens (Paradise) under which rivers flow to dwell therein (forever). All�h is pleased with them, and they with Him. They are the Party of All�h. Verily, it is the Party of All�h that will be the successful.
There are many other Ayahs (Qur’anic verses) and Hadith narrated to the same effect.
There is nothing wrong, however, if the kind of relationship developed between the Muslim and Kafir does not go beyond selling and buying or accepting the Kafir’s invitation to have lawful food with him or accepting a lawful present, provided that no harm is done to the Muslim’s faith.
It is permissible for the Muslim to dine and eat the food served by a Kafir in dishes or cups previously used for serving pork or drinking wine as long as they are properly washed.
A Muslim is even more encouraged to develop relationships with Kafirs if it proves helpful in conveying the Message of Islam and he will be granted a great reward for that.
May Allah grant us success! May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family and Companions!
Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’
|`Abdullah ibn Qa`ud||`Abdullah ibn Ghudayyan||`Abdul-Razzaq `Afify||`Abdul-`Aziz ibn `Abdullah ibn Baz|
Permanent Committee Fatwas > The first group > Volume 12: (Jihad and Hisbah) > Jihad and Hisbah > Da`wah > Having personal relations with Kafirs to call them to Allah / The fifth question of Fatwa no. 4214