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Scholarly views concerning those who malign or ridicule the Glorious Quran or the Messenger (peace be upon him) [Fatawa Ibn Baaz]

Scholarly views concerning those who malign or ridicule the Glorious Quran or the Messenger (peace be upon him) [Fatawa Ibn Baaz]

[ Allah says: “If you ask them (about this), they declare: “We were only talking idly and joking.” Say: “Was it at Allah (عز وجل), and His Ayat (signs, revelations) and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) that you were mocking?”. Make no excuse; you disbelieved after you had believed.” [Soorah at-Tawbah: 65-66]*

Imam Abu …Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad Al-Ansary Al-Qurtuby said in his Tafsir Book “Al-Jami… Li Ahkam Al-Qur‘an” in his commentary on this Ayah (Qur‘anic verse) the following: Al-Qady Abu Bakr ibn Al-…Araby said: What they – the hypocrites – said must have been either in earnest or in jest, but no matter what it was, it is Kufr (disbelief), because joking about Kufr is also Kufr, and there is no difference of opinion concerning this among the Ummah (Muslim nation). End quote.

Al-Qady …Iyad ibn Musa (may Allah be merciful to him) said the following in his Book “Ash-Shifa‘ bi Ta…rif Huquq Al-Mustafa” (Healing by the Recognition of the Rights of the Chosen one) p. 325:

Let it be known that whoever makes light of the Qur‘an or the Mus-haf (a copy of the Qur‘an) or any part of it, or blasphemes them, or denies any letter or Ayah of it, or contradicts anything it stated whether it is a ruling or news, or knowingly asserts what it negates or negates what it asserts, or doubts any of it – is a Kafir (disbeliever) according to Ijma… (consensus of scholars). Allah (Exalted be He) says: “…it is an honourable well-fortified respected Book (because it is All�h‘s Speech, and He has protected it from corruption). Falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it: (it is) sent down by the All-Wise, Worthy of all praise (All�h عز وجل)”.

Al-Qady `Iyad said in his above-mentioned book regarding the ruling on blaspheming the Prophet (peace be upon him) p. 233 the following:

Let it be known – may Allah grant me and you success – that anyone who curses the Prophet (peace be upon him), or defames him, or attributes to him a shortcoming in his person, lineage, religion or one of his characteristics, or speaks badly about him, or likens him to something in a way that implies reviling him, scorning him, belittling his status, disparaging him or criticizing him, will be a blasphemer and will come under the same ruling as those who blaspheme him; they must be executed as we shall elaborate.

None of the chapters of this section on this subject is to be excluded from the ruling, and we will not cast doubt, either explicitly or implicitly, on the ruling of killing the doer. The same applies to anyone who curses him, supplicates against him, or wishes harm upon him, or attributes to him something that does not befit his status by way of derogation, or trifles with his venerated position by speaking nonsense about him, or obscene words, or offensive statements, or falsehood, or criticizes him for trials or catastrophes that befell him, or tries to undermine his position because of some human trait that is possible for a Prophet. This is according to the consensus of Muslim scholars and head Muftis (Islamic scholars qualified to issue legal opinions) since the time of the Sahabah (Companions of the Prophet, may Allah be pleased with them) onwards.

Abu Bakr ibn Al-Munzir said:

The majority of Muslim scholars are unanimously agreed that whoever reviles the Prophet (peace be upon him) must be executed. Among the scholars who gave this opinion are: Malik ibn Anas, Al-Layth, Ahmad, Is-haq; it is also the legal view of Al-Shafi…y.

Shaykh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (may Allah be merciful to him) said the following in his Book “Al-Sarim Al-Maslul …Ala Shatim Al-Rasul (The Drawn Sword Against the Blasphemer of the Prophet)” p. 3:

The first issue: Those who revile the Prophet (peace be upon him) whether a Muslim or Kafir, must be killed; this is the view of the majority of scholars.

Then he cited the words of Abu Bakr ibn Al-Mundhir which have been mentioned above in the statement of Al-Qady `Iyad: then Shaykh-ul-Islam said the following:

Abu Bakr Al-Farisy (one of the followers of Shafi…y) reported the unanimous agreement of the Muslims that the Had (ordained punishment for violating Allah‘s Law) incurred against the one who blasphemes the Prophet (peace be upon him) is killing, while the Had incurred for blaspheming others is lashing. The consensus which he reported is based on the unanimity of the earliest generation of the Sahabah and the Tabi…un (Followers, the generation after the Companions of the Prophet), or he might have intended by it their consensus that the reviler of the Prophet (peace be upon him) must be executed if the person is a Muslim.

Al-Qady `Iyad also restricted the ruling to Muslims. He said: The whole Ummah are unanimously agreed that anyone who disparages or blasphemes the Prophet (peace be upon him) from among the Muslims must be killed. More than one scholar has reported the consensus opinion on killing and declaring the blasphemer of the Prophet (peace be upon him) to be a Kafir.

Imam Ishaq ibn Rahawayh, one of the prominent scholars (may Allah be merciful to him) said: Muslims are unanimously agreed that anyone who blasphemes Allah (Exalted be He) or His Messenger (peace be upon him), or denies something which Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) has revealed, or kills one of the Prophets of Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) is a Kafir by committing this action, even if admitting to the truth of all the Revelations of Allah.

Al-Khattaby (may Allah be merciful to him) said: I do not know of any Muslim who disagreed on the obligation of killing such a person (the one who blasphemes the Prophet).

Muhammad ibn Sahnun said: Scholars are agreed that the one who reviles or disparages the Prophet (peace be upon him) is a Kafir and is threatened with the Punishment of Allah and the ruling – according to the Ummah – is that such a blasphemer must be killed. Whoever doubts that this person is a Kafir or deserves Punishment, the denier will be committing Kufr (disbelief).

Shaykh-ul-Islam, Abu Al-…Abbas (may Allah be merciful to him) said: The summary of the view is: If the blasphemer is a Muslim, they have committed Kufr and must be executed without disagreement; this is the view of the Four Imams (Abu Hanifah, Malik, Al-Shafi…y, and Ahmad). As aforesaid, among the Imams who reported the unanimous view: Ishaq ibn Rahawayh and others, then he mentioned the disagreement if the blasphemer is a Dhimmy (protected non-Muslim living under Islamic rule) then he (may Allah be merciful to him) mentioned at the end of the book, p. 512 the following:

The fourth issue concerning the explanation of the blasphemy in question and the difference between it and plain Kufr (disbelief). Before we begin to discuss the issue, we should give a short introduction which should be mentioned at the beginning of the first issue, but it is also suitable to mention it here to reveal the secret of the case.

Blaspheming Allah (Exalted be He) or His Prophet (peace be upon him) is manifest and hidden Kufr whether the blasphemer believes that it is prohibited, or deems it lawful, or is ignorant or unaware of its unlawfulness, which is the legal view maintained by the Fuqaha‘ (Muslim jurists) and the rest of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama…ah (adherents to the Sunnah and the Muslim main body) who say that Iman (Faith) is composed of words and actions…to the saying in p. 538 the following:

Exemplifying the words of blasphemy against the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) is heavy on the heart as well as the tongue. We feel the gravity of uttering such words, even by way of mention, but because we need to explain the ruling on this matter, we will talk about the types of blaspheming in general without specification and the jurist can comprehend it from that.

Blasphemy is of two types: invoking and informing. As for invoking, one for example may say to another: “May Allah curse him,” or “May Allah disfigure him,” or “May Allah disgrace him,” or “May Allah show no mercy to him,” or “May Allah be displeased with him,” or “May Allah cut off his descendants”. All this and the like of it is a form of blaspheming the prophets and others. The same ruling applies to those who say about a prophet: “May Allah not send on him peace or blessings,” or “May Allah not raise his repute,” or “May Allah erase his name,” and similar invoking of evil upon him in this world or in the Hereafter. If such phrases are uttered by a Muslim or a Dhimmy, they are considered to be blasphemy and as a result, the Muslim must be killed because of it under any circumstance and the Dhimmy will be killed if they declare it….

until he (may Allah be merciful to him) said in p. 540: The second type: As for informing, all that people consider as insult, blasphemy or disparagement entails killing. Kufr does not necessarily involve blasphemy. A person could be a Kafir but not a blasphemer. People are generally aware that a person may hate another and think ill of him, but does not revile him, and may add revilement to this. But even if the revilement is the exact thought in mind, still not all that can be thought can be said, and not all that can be said secretly can be said openly, and the same word can in one situation be a blasphemy and in another not a blasphemy. Thus, it is known that this matter differs according to words and situations. Since no boundary is defined for blasphemy in language or Shari…ah, the reference will be to custom. So what is customarily considered to be blasphemy against the Prophet (peace be upon him) will fall under the ruling given by the Sahabah and scholars. Otherwise, it will not.

Note: * added by editor

Fatwas of Ibn Baz>Volume 1>Ruling on a person who impugns the Qur‘an claiming that it contains contradictions and some myths>Scholarly views concerning those who malign or ridicule the Glorious Qur‘an or the Messenger


if a Muslim who apostatizes and abandons islam deserves the death penalty, why does a non-Muslim who converts to islam not deserve the same penalty?

The Permanent Committee was asked: if a Muslim who apostatizes and abandons islam deserves the death penalty, why does not a non-Muslim who converts to islam deserve the same penalty?

Answer: By professing Islam, the person obeys Allah (Glorified be He) and achieves actual servitude to Him. Any competent creature, whether from among mankind or Jinn (creatures created from fire), is obligated to believe in Allah’s Religion. This is Allah’s Right that all His Creation have to fulfill.

Allah (Exalted be He) says: “And I (Allah) created not the jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me (Alone).”

He (Glorified be He) also says: “Truly, the religion with Allah is Islam.”

Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) says: “And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers.”

and “O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allah), Who created you and those who were before you so that you may become Al-Muttaqeen”

Also, Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) says about the great reward of the person who professes Islam with deep belief in Allah and translates their Iman (Faith) into good deeds: “Verily those who believe and do righteous deeds, shall have the Gardens of Al-Firdaus (Paradise) for their entertainment. Wherein they shall dwell (forever). No desire will they have for removal therefrom.”

Allah (Glorified be He) says: “O Children of Adam! If there come to you Messengers from amongst you, reciting to you My Verses, then whosoever becomes pious and righteous, on them shall be no fear nor shall they grieve.”

and “Then if there comes to you guidance from Me, then whoever follows My Guidance he shall neither go astray, nor shall be distressed.”

and “Whoever works righteousness – whether male or female – while he (or she) is a true believer verily, to him We will give a good life (in this world with respect, contentment and lawful provision), and We shall pay them certainly a reward in proportion to the best of what they used to do (i.e. Paradise in the Hereafter).”

There are many Ayahs (Qur’anic verses) to the same effect. Therefore, the person who professes Islam and believes in Allah as the Lord, in Muhammad (peace be upon him) as a Prophet and Messenger, and in Islam as a religion will be rewarded by gaining Allah’s Guidance and Light, having a blissful life in this world and in the Hereafter, attaining bliss in Jannah (Paradise), gaining Allah’s Pleasure, and being saved from the Fire.

On the other hand, the person who apostatizes and abandons Al-Haqq (the Truth), that was revealed by Allah, is disobeying Allah (Exalted be He) and neglecting His Orders. Hence, they deserve to be punished by the death penalty in this world and by staying in the Fire forever in the Hereafter.

This is according to the Judgment of Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) as mentioned in His Saying: “And whosoever of you turns back from his religion and dies as a disbeliever, then his deeds will be lost in this life and in the Hereafter, and they will be the dwellers of the Fire. They will abide therein forever.”

May Allah grant us success! May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions!

Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’

Member Member Member Chairman
Bakr Abu Zayd Salih Al-Fawzan `Abdullah Ghudayyan `Abdul-`Aziz ibn `Abdullah Al Al-Shaykh

Fatwa of Permanent Committee > Group 1 > Volume 22: Hudud > Had > Had of Riddah > Executing the Had of Riddah on converts from other religions


From Islam Q&A

This question has bees asked several time from non-Muslims and I want to find an answer: Why When the Muslim convert to another religion(Murtad) he/she should be killed?

Praise be to Allaah.

Your question may be answered by the following points:

(1) This is the ruling of Allaah and His Messenger, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever changes his religion, kill him.” (reported by al-Bukhaari, al-Fath, no. 3017).

(2) The one who has known the religion which Allaah revealed, entered it and practised it, then rejected it, despised it and left it, is a person who does not deserve to live on the earth of Allaah and eat from the provision of Allaah.

(3) By leaving Islaam, the apostate opens the way for everyone who wants to leave the faith, thus spreading apostasy and encouraging it.

(4) The apostate is not to be killed without warning. Even though his crime is so great, he is given a last chance, a respite of three days in which to repent. If he repents, he will be left alone; if he does not repent, then he will be killed.

(5) If the punishment for murder and espionage (also known as high treason) is death, then what should be the punishment for the one who disbelieves in the Lord of mankind and despises and rejects His religion? Is espionage or shedding blood worse than leaving the religion of the Lord of mankind and rejecting it?

(6) None of those who bleat about personal freedom and freedom of belief would put up with a neighbour’s child hitting their child or justify this as “personal freedom,” so how can they justify leaving the true religion and rejecting the sharee’ah which Allaah revealed to teach mankind about His unity and bring justice and fairness to all?

We ask Allaah for safety and health. May Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad .

Islam Q&A
Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid

What is the Islamic ruling on a Muslim man who curses the religion ?

Q: What is the Islamic ruling on a Muslim man who curses the religion?

A: Cursing the religion is one of the greatest sins and it is a violation of Islam, we ask Allah to keep us safe.

One who curses Islam or the Prophet of Islam or curses any other messenger will have apostatized Islam, we seek refuge with Allah.

This ruling applies if one curses the Prophet or curses Islam in any way, such as saying that Islam is an inflexible or incomplete religion or is just an opium for the people, or similar demeaning words; these are all forms of cursing, and one who commits this is an apostate, who should be made to repent or else should be killed.

Here, some scholars believe that such a person should not be made to repent, but should rather be killed right away, as is the case when one curses Allah (Exalted be He) or the Prophet (peace be upon him). In other words, cursing Allah, His Prophet or His Religion is apostasy from Islam.

In this regard, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Whoever changes his religion, kill him.”

It is an obligation on one who commits this to offer Tawbah (repentance to Allah), and to return to Allah, regret the sin which they have committed and increase their good deeds, so that Allah will forgive them. As for rulers, they are obliged to force those who have committed this sin to repent, reprimand, discipline and deter them and their likes from such sins.

As for acceptance of one’s Tawbah, scholars have different opinions in this regard. Those who believe such repentance likely to be accepted ground their opinion on reasonable grounds, while those who believe that such a sinner should be killed and their repentance will not be accepted draw on plausible argument, namely that this is to deter others from being negligent in this matter, and it entails protection for the Religion of Allah, veneration for Allah’s (Exalted be He) Majesty and respect for the Prophet (peace be upon him).

As for saying: Such a person’s Tawbah is formally accepted or not accepted, this is a controversial issue among scholars.

As regards the relation between a person and Allah, such Tawbah is likely to be accepted if one is sincere in their Tawbah and if they return to Allah and regret their sin. This is maintained by the categorical denotation of Shary (Islamic legal) texts indicating that Allah (Glorified be He) accepts the Tawbah of His Servants.

He (Exalted be He) says: “And all of you beg All�h to forgive you all, O believers, that you may be successful”

For, Tawbah has great significance, if the servant offers it sincerely, regretting and abandoning their sins, both major or minor, and mend their ways. As regards whether the ruler should accept a person’s Tawbah in this worldly life (and in turn pardon them) or should (disregard it and in turn) kill them, this is a controversial issue.

Thus, scholars who are against accepting such Tawbah claim that cursing is a great sin, and by accepting such Tawbah of the sinner, other people will become lenient in this matter. It is for this reason that some scholars believe such a sinner should be killed and their Tawbah should not be accepted by the rulers in order to eliminate that evil and protect the Religion of Allah and His Prophet against mockery or ridicule.

Allah is the One sought for help; there is neither might nor power except with Him, the Most Exalted and Most Great.

Cursing the religion is a sin that is committed by many foolish persons, and therefore it is an obligation upon all Muslims to guard against this.

They should watch their words and avoid cursing Allah, His Religion or His Prophet, or cursing Jannah (Paradise) or anything else related to Allah’s Shariah. All Muslims, males or females, should guard against cursing whatever Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) has made inviolable.

He (Glorified and Exalted be He) says: “Say: “Was it at All�h (عز وجل), and His Ay�t (proofs, evidence, verses, lessons, signs, revelations) and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) that you were mocking?” Make no excuse; you disbelieved after you had believed.”

When the Prophet (peace be upon him) heard that a person killed his female slave because she used to curse the Prophet (peace be upon him) – knowing that her master first invited her to repent and when she refused it, he killed her -, he (peace be upon him) said: “I bear witness that her blood was not spilled unjustly”

This was because she cursed the Prophet (peace be upon him). That is to say it is an obligation on the Muslims, males and females, to guard against this sin, or this great crime. May Allah grant us all safety and wellbeing.

Fatwas of Nur `Ala Al-Darb>Volume 4>Chapter on the nullifiers of Islam>Ruling on a Muslim who curses Islam

Whoever degrades or mocks Allah or His Messenger (peace be upon him) is a Kafir (disbeliever) and a Murtad (apostate)

From the Fatawa of Allamah Ibn Baz (rahimahullah)
What is ruling on whoever curses Allah or His Messenger or degrades them? What is the ruling on whoever denies something that Allah has made Wajib or considers something Halal (lawful) that Allah has declared as Haraam (prohibited)? Please provide us with a detailed answer as these evils have widely spread amongst many people.
Whoever curses Allah (Glorified be He), the Messenger Muhammad (peace be upon him), any other messenger, or Islam by any means or degrades or mocks Allah or His Messenger (peace be upon him) is a Kafir (disbeliever) and a Murtad (apostate) in case they ascribe themselves to Islam.

Muslims have unanimously agreed on the foregoing as Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) says:Surah At-Tawbah, 9:65 Say: “Was it at All�h (عز وجل), and His Ay�t (proofs, evidence, verses, lessons, signs, revelations) and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) that you were mocking?” Surah At-Tawbah, 9: 66 Make no excuse; you disbelieved after you had believed.

The prominent scholar Imam Abu Al-`Abbas ibn Taymiyyah (may Allah be merciful with him) mentioned detailed proofs for this issue in his book “Al-Sarim Al-Maslul `ala Shatim Al-Rasul”. Whoever likes to check these proofs can refer to this book, which is very valuable and whose author (may Allah be merciful with him) is distinguished for his vast knowledge of Shar`y (Islamic legal) proofs.
The same ruling mentioned above also applies to whoever denies something Ma`lum minad-din bid-darurah that Allah (Exalted be He) has declared as Wajib or considers it Halal although Allah (Exalted be He) has declared the same as Haraam.

Our Salaf, thus, agreed that whoever denies the obligation of performing Salah (Prayer), paying Zakah (obligatory charity), observing Sawm (Fast) in Ramadan, performing Hajj while able, being dutiful to parents, and so on, is an apostate Kafir in case that they ascribe themselves to Islam. Likely, whoever regards drinking Khamr (intoxicants), undutifulness to parents, usurping people’s wealth and killing them with no valid reason, consuming Riba (usury), and so on, as Halal is an apostate Kafir. Scholars (may Allah be merciful with them) discussed this issue and other issues classified under the nullifiers of Islam in detail in the chapters discussing the ruling on apostates.

Whoever wants to know more regarding this issue may refer to these chapters in the books of various scholars from the Hanbaly, Shafi`y, Maliky, Hanafy and other Schools of Jurisprudence to get the details that are sufficient In sha‘a-Allah (if Allah wills).
No one is to be excused on the plea of being ignorant, as the matters mentioned above are well known for Muslims and the rulings on them are clear both in the Qur’an and the Sunnah.
May Allah grant us success! May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad and his family!
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