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The difference between zakaah and sadaqah

What is the difference between Sadaka and zakaah ?

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Praise be to Allaah.
Zakaah in Arabic means growth, blessing and purification.

See Lisaan al-‘Arab, 14/358;, 2/399

Sadaqah comes from the word sidq (sincerity), i.e. it is a sign of sincerity of faith on the part of the person who gives it.

See Fath al-Qadeer, 2/399

With regard to the shar’i definition:

Zakaah means worshipping Allaah by giving that which He has enjoined of different kinds of zakaah to those who are entitled to them, according to the guidelines prescribed in sharee’ah.

Sadaqah means worshipping Allaah by giving money without that being made obligatory in sharee’ah. The word sadaqah is sometimes used to refer to obligatory zakaah.

With regard to the difference between zakaah and sadaqah, it is as follows:

1 – Zakaah is enjoined in Islam on specific things, which are: gold, silver, crops, fruits, trade goods and an’aam livestock, i.e., camels, cattle and sheep.

With regard to sadaqah, it is not obligatory on any kind of wealth, rather it is what a person can give, without any specific limits or guidelines.

2 – Zakaah is subject to the conditions that one full Hijri have passed since acquiring the wealth, and that the wealth meet the minimum threshold (nisaab), and it is a specific portion of wealth.

Sadaqah is not subject to any conditions, and it may be given at any time, in any amount.

3 – Allaah has enjoined that zakaah be given to certain types of people, and it is not permissible to give it to anyone else. They are the people mentioned in the verse (interpretation of the meaning):

“As-Sadaqaat (here it means Zakaah) are only for the Fuqaraa’ (poor), and Al‑Masaakeen (the poor) and those employed to collect (the funds); and to attract the hearts of those who have been inclined (towards Islam); and to free the captives; and for those in debt; and for Allaah’s Cause (i.e. for Mujaahidoon — those fighting in a holy battle), and for the wayfarer (a traveller who is cut off from everything); a duty imposed by Allaah. And Allaah is All-Knower, All-Wise”

[al-Tawbah 9:60]

With regard to sadaqah, it may be given to those mentioned in the verse on zakaah and to others.

4 – Whoever dies and owes zakaah, his heirs must pay it from his wealth, and that takes precedence over the will (wasiyah) and inheritance.

As for sadaqah, there are no such obligations with regard to it.

5 – The one who withholds zakaah is to be punished, as it says in the hadeeth narrated by Muslim in his Saheeh (987) from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There is no owner of treasure who does not pay his zakaah, but it will be heated in the Fire of Hell and made into plates with which his sides and forehead will be branded until Allaah passes judgement between His slaves on a Day the length of which will be like fifty thousand years, then he see shown his path and whether it leads to Paradise or to Hell. And there is no owner of camels who does not pay zakaah on them, but a soft sandy plain will be prepared for him and they will be made to step on him. Every time the last of them has gone the first of them will return, until Allaah passes judgement between His slaves on a Day the length of which will be like fifty thousand years, then he will see his path and whether it leads to Paradise or to Hell. And there is no owner of sheep who does not pay zakaah on them but a soft sandy plain will be prepared for him, and he will find none of them missing, with twisted horns or without horns or with broken horns, and they will be made to gore him with their horns and trample him with their hooves. Every time the last of them has gone the first of them will return, until Allaah passes judgement between His slaves on a Day the length of which will be like fifty thousand years, then he will see his path and whether it leads to Paradise or to Hell…”

With regard to sadaqah, the one who does not pay it will not be punished.

6 – According to the four schools of law, it is not permissible to give zakaah to one’s ascendants or descendents. Ascendants include one’s mother, father, grandfathers and grandmothers; descendents include one’s children and their children.

Sadaqah may be given to one’s ascendants and descendants.

7 – It is not permissible to give zakaah to one who is rich or who is strong and able to earn a living.

It was narrated that ‘Ubayd-Allaah ibn ‘Adiyy said: Two men told me that they came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) during the Farewell Pilgrimage when he was distributing the zakaah and asked him for some of it. He looked them up and down, and saw that they were strong and able-bodied. He said, “If you wish, I will give you some, but those who are rich or strong and able to earn have no share of it.”

Narrated by Abu Dawood, 1633; al-Nasaa’i, 2598; classed as saheeh by Imam Ahmad and others.

See Talkhees al-Habeer, 3/108

Sadaqah may be given to those who are rich and those who are strong and able to earn.

8 – In the case of zakaah, it is better for it to be taken from the rich of a land and given to their poor. Many scholars are of the view that it is not permissible to send it to another country unless that serves an interest.

But charity may be spent on those who are near and those who are far.

9 – It is not permissible to give zakaah to kuffaar and mushrikeen.

Sadaqah may be given to kuffaar and mushrikeen.

Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And they give food, in spite of their love for it (or for the love of Him), to the Miskeen (the poor), the orphan, and the captive”

[al-Insaan 76:8]

Al-Qurtubi said: In dar al-Islam (the Muslim lands), a captive could only be a mushrik.

10 – It is not permissible for a Muslim to give zakaah to his wife. Ibn al-Mundhir narrated that there was scholarly consensus on this point.

But sadaqah may be given to one’s wife.

These are some of the differences between zakaah and sadaqah.

The word sadaqah may be applied to all kinds of good deeds. Al-Bukhaari (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in his Saheeh: “Chapter: every good deed is a charity” then he narrated from Jaabir ibn ‘Abd-Allaah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Every good deed is a charity.”

Ibn Battaal said: This hadeeth indicates that every good thing that a person does or says is recorded for him as an act of charity.

Al-Nawawi said: The Prophet’s words “Every good deed is a charity” means that it is like charity in reward.

And Allaah knows best.

Zakaah on wealth earned during the year

How should Zakat be calculated? When the wealth reaches the nisaab (the amount that determines whether Zakat is obligatory)? Or when a full year turns on it? If the amount I have when a nisaab completed was 10.000, but became 50.000 with the end of the year. On which amount shall I calculate the Zakat of wealth?.

Praise be to Allaah.
Firstly:

In order for zakaah to be due on money, two conditions must be met:

1 – That it reaches the nisaab (minimum threshold)

2 – That one year has passed since it reaches the nisaab.

If the money is less than the nisaab, then no zakaah is due on it.

If it reaches the nisaab, and one year has passed, i.e. a lunar (hijri) year has passed since the time when it reached the nisaab, then zakaah becomes due at that point.

The nisaab is the equivalent of 85 grams of gold or 595 grams of silver.

The rate that must be paid for zakaah is one quarter of one tenth (2.5%).

Secondly:

If the money reaches the nisaab and it is 1000 for example, then at the end of the year it is 5000, how should zakaah be paid?

That depends:

1 – If this extra amount stems directly from the original amount, such as if the thousand was invested, and earned four thousand, then you should pay zakaah on the entire amount at the end of the year, because the profit on money is connected to the capital.

2 – If this extra amount did not stem directly from the original amount, rather it is money that was acquired by different means, such as an inheritance or a gift, or it is the price of something that you sold, and so on, then a separate year should be counted for it, starting from the day when you took possession of this extra amount. But if you want to pay its zakaah with the thousand, in advance, there is nothing wrong with that.

3 – This extra amount may come gradually, such as money that a person saves from his salary, so he saves 500 one month, and 1000 another month, until at the end of the year he has collected 4000. So you have the choice of paying the whole amount when one year has passed for the thousand, in which case you will have paid zakaah in advance for the money for which a year has not yet passed, or you can pay the zakaah for each sum separately when its year has passed, but this entails some kind of hardship, as you will be paying zakaah several times in one year.

For more information please see question no. 50801.

And Allaah knows best.

Questions about zakaah on jewellery and how it should be paid and who should pay it

I got married in December 2005 and I was given a considerable amount of Gold jewellery by my parents and in laws on which zakat is wajib. When I came to Canada I brought some gold jewellery with me and the big ones are back at my home. My father is paying zakat for the rest of my jewellery since the time they were bought. Now my question is 1)Can my father pay my zakat or does my husband has to pay my zakat as I have no source of income? 2) I sold gold [jewellery] that I used to wear for some time but I did not pay zakat on it. What I should do about its zakat, given that I sold it for about $2000. 3) As my husband is a student so he doesn’t have any income either. But is it possible for me to pay my zakat all together after he gets a job or do I have to pay my zakat by my income (I don’t have any income as I’m a housewife)? 4)Now the month of Ramadan has passed I did not pay zakat. Did I have to pay in Ramadan as I have not , can I pay now? Please clarify in detail what will be the calculation procedure?.
Praise be to Allaah.
Firstly:

Zakaah is obligatory on the owner of the wealth and the owner of the gold, but it is permissible for someone else to pay it on his behalf with his permission.

Based on that, your husband or your father may pay zakaah on your behalf with your permission and he will be doing an act of kindness. It is only stipulated that it be done with your permission and your knowledge, because zakaah is an act of worship in which the intention is essential. So you may form the intention to pay zakaah through your father or your husband.

Secondly:

If the time for paying your zakaah comes in Ramadan, for example, and you sold some of your gold during the year, if the cash stayed with you until Ramadan, then you have to pay zakaah on it at a rate of one quarter of one tenth (2.5 %). If you spent the money before Ramadan, then you do not have to pay anything.

If one year had passed for the gold and you had not paid zakaah on it, then you sold the gold, you have to pay the zakaah that you did not pay because it is a debt that you owe.

Thirdly:

As we mentioned above, the owner of the wealth has to pay zakaah on it, but it is permissible for someone else to volunteer to pay it. If you have gold but you do not have cash and your husband or father does not volunteer to pay zakaah on your behalf, then you should pay it from the gold itself or sell part of it in order to pay zakaah.

Fourthly:

Zakaah does not have to be paid in Ramadan; rather it has to be paid when one year has passed (since it was acquired and every year thereafter). If you took possession of the gold in Ramadan, then the time for the zakaah is in Ramadan. If you took possession of it in Muharram, then zakaah must be paid in Muharram, and so on.

If we assume that the time for paying your zakaah is in Ramadan, but you were late in paying it, then you have to pay it now, because zakaah is a duty that must be fulfilled immediately and it is not permissible to delay it beyond the time when it is due.

How to pay zakaah:

Work out the value of the gold when one year has passed, then pay 2.5% of this value. This is done by seeing how much the gold would be sold for in the market if you wanted to sell it. This takes into account the quantity of the gold, the carat and whether it is used gold. If the gold that you have is worth 100,000 for example, then you have to pay 2.5%, i.e., 2,500.

And Allah knows best.

Minimum amount (nisaab) required to pay zakat in dollars

I live in the united states. How much is Nesab el-Zakat in US dollars?
Nisaab ul-Zakat for naqd (gold and silver) is defined as the minimum amount of naqd specified by shari’a below which one is not required to pay zakat, whereas if one’s wealth exceeds it then zakat becomes incumbent.

And it is known that zakat ul-maal (wealth) in shari’a is required for the two types of naqd—gold and silver—and what serves their function in modern times (commonly referred to as cash), whether it is dollars or riyals or pounds or otherwise.

Nisaab for gold as our Prophet (peace be upon him) has informed us (and for currencies made from gold) is 20 mithqaalan, a measure which is equivalent to 85 grams of pure gold (1 mithqaal = 4.25 grams). It becomes incumbent upon anyone who owns such an amount in any form to pay zakat on it in the amount of 2.5%.

Nisaab for silver and currencies made from silver is 200 dirhams, which is equivalent to 595 grams of pure silver (1 dirham = 2.975 grams). Likewise, it becomes incumbent upon anyone who owns such an amount in any form to pay zakat on it in the amount of 2.5%.

It is well known that there is a noticeable disparity between the value of nisaab for gold and that of silver in our times. The best and most conservative for a poor person is to assess how many dollars he has that have been in his possession for a complete lunar year (Hijri, which is 354 days). If the amount reaches the value of nisaab for silver or more, then he should pay from it for every 1000 dollars, 25 dollars (i.e., 2.5%) to be spent in the prescribed benficiaries as specified by shari’ah, and we ask Allah to aid us and help us succeed in haqq il-maal wa salla allahu ala nabiyyana muhammad

Islamqa

Zakat-ul-Fitr – from Sahih Bukhari

Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 25:
Obligatory Charity Tax After Ramadaan (Zakat ul Fitr)

Volume 2, Book 25, Number 579:

Narrated Ibn Umar:

Allah’s Apostle enjoined the payment of one Sa’ of dates or one Sa’ of barley as Zakat-ul-Fitr on every Muslim slave or free, male or female, young or old, and he ordered that it be paid before the people went out to offer the ‘Id prayer. (One Sa’ = 3 Kilograms approx.)

Volume 2, Book 25, Number 580:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:

Allah’s Apostle made it incumbent on all the slave or free Muslims, male or female, to pay one Sa’ of dates or barley as Zakat-ul-Fitr.

Volume 2, Book 25, Number 581:

Narrated Abu Said:

We used to give one Sa’ of barley as Sadaqatul-Fitr (per head).

Volume 2, Book 25, Number 582:

Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:

We used to give one Sa’ of meal or one Sa’ of barley or one Sa’ of dates, or one Sa’ of cottage cheese or one Sa’ of Raisins (dried grapes) as Zakat-ul-Fitr.

Volume 2, Book 25, Number 583:

Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar

The Prophet ordered (Muslims) to give one Sa’ of dates or one Sa’ of barley as Zakat-ul-Fitr. The people rewarded two Mudds of wheat as equal to that.

Volume 2, Book 25, Number 584:

Narrated Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri:

In the life-time of the Prophet we used to give one Sa’ of food or one Sa’ of dates or one Sa’ of barley or one Sa’ of Raisins (dried grapes) as Sadaqat-ul-Fitr. And when Muawiya became the Caliph and the wheat was (available in abundance) he said, “I think (observe) that one Mudd (of wheat) equals two Mudds (of any of the above mentioned things).

Volume 2, Book 25, Number 585:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:

The Prophet ordered the people to pay Zakat-ul-Fitr before going to the ‘Id prayer.

Volume 2, Book 25, Number 586:

Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:

In the life-time of Allah’s Apostle , we used to give one Sa’ of food (edible things) as Sadaqat-ul-Fit,r (to the poor). Our food used to be either of barley, raisins (dried grapes), cottage cheese or dates.

Volume 2, Book 25, Number 587:

Narrated Nafi’:

Ibn ‘Umar said, “The Prophet made incumbent on every male or female, free man or slave, the payment of one Sa’ of dates or barley as Sadaqat-ul-Fitr (or said Sadaqa-Ramadan).” The people then substituted half Sa’ of wheat for that. Ibn ‘Umar used to give dates (as Sadaqat-ulFitr). Once there was scarcity of dates in Medina and Ibn ‘Umar gave barley. ‘And Ibn ‘Umar used to give Sadaqat-ul-Fitr for every young and old person. He even used to give on behalf of my children. Ibn ‘Umar used to give Sadaqatul-Fitr to those who had been officially appointed for its collection. People used to give Sadaqat-ul-Fitr (even) a day or two before the ‘Id.

Volume 2, Book 25, Number 588:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:

Allah’s Apostle has made Sadaqatul-Fitr obligatory, (and it was), either one Sa’ of barley or one Sa’ of dates (and its payment was obligatory) on young and old people, and on free men as well as on slaves.

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